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We evaluate the performance of optical network designs using relatively few switch nodes at which wavelength conversion and electronic regeneration is possible. A simple heuristic for placing the fewest such nodes to reach a given blocking probability is based on the ranked frequency of shortest-path routes transiting each node. This strategy is found to be(More)
—We consider a slotted WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters. The performance of this switch is studied using simulations with various types of data traffic. Results show that the slotted WDM packet switch with a small range of wavelength conversion capability can achieve a performance close to that of a switch with the full range of(More)
We propose and investigate three connection admission control policies for the establishment of label switched paths (LSPs) in IP/ MPLS over optical networks. We show that the policy of establishing LSPs ®rst in the optical layer achieves a better blocking performance. We examine the effect of the number of add/drop ports of optical cross-connects (OXCs) on(More)
Due to the impairments in optical fiber transmission, regeneration is needed in certain intermediate nodes for some lengthy lightpaths. This kind of optical networks is called translucent optical networks. Spare transceivers in the optical nodes can be used for regeneration. The problem of maximizing the number of established connections (NEC) in the(More)
Keywords: Scale-free network Imperfect immunization Epidemic threshold Average outbreak size Degree-correlated SIR a b s t r a c t Scale-free networks are prone to epidemic spreading. To provide cost-effective protection for such networks, targeted immunization was proposed to selectively immunize the hub nodes. In many real-life applications, however, the(More)
The problem of how to upgrade translucent optical networks is studied in this paper. This study is motivated by the cost advantage of not having network nodes fully equipped with transceivers in the beginning of network deployment but adding transceivers as and when it is necessary. A novel heuristic algorithm for the selection of nodes to upgrade (by(More)
We report experimental and numerical results on the dynamics of gain-guided solitons in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser made of purely normal dispersion fibers. We show that formation of the soliton in the laser is a result of mutual interaction and balance among the cavity transmission, fiber Kerr nonlinearity, gain saturation, and(More)
Digital carrier phase estimation (CPE) is used in coherent optical receiver to estimate and track carrier phase. The carrier phase estimated from a single symbol is corrupted by noise; hence, it is necessary for CPE to average a block of symbols to mitigate the noise effect. Symbols with significant noise in the averaging block can severely distort the(More)
Hypoalbuminemia is a surrogate of malnutrition in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing chronic dialysis and commonly improves with prescription of adequate nutrition and dialysis. Nevertheless, some patients remain hypoalbuminemic for poorly understood reasons. We tested the hypotheses that chronic dialysis patients who remain hypoalbuminemic(More)