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We evaluate the performance of optical network designs using relatively few switch nodes at which wavelength conversion and electronic regeneration is possible. A simple heuristic for placing the fewest such nodes to reach a given blocking probability is based on the ranked frequency of shortest-path routes transiting each node. This strategy is found to be(More)
—We consider a slotted WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters. The performance of this switch is studied using simulations with various types of data traffic. Results show that the slotted WDM packet switch with a small range of wavelength conversion capability can achieve a performance close to that of a switch with the full range of(More)
We propose and investigate three connection admission control policies for the establishment of label switched paths (LSPs) in IP/ MPLS over optical networks. We show that the policy of establishing LSPs ®rst in the optical layer achieves a better blocking performance. We examine the effect of the number of add/drop ports of optical cross-connects (OXCs) on(More)
Keywords: Scale-free network Imperfect immunization Epidemic threshold Average outbreak size Degree-correlated SIR a b s t r a c t Scale-free networks are prone to epidemic spreading. To provide cost-effective protection for such networks, targeted immunization was proposed to selectively immunize the hub nodes. In many real-life applications, however, the(More)
Modulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel by calyculin A and genistein was studied in Hi-5 insect cells infected with baculovirus containing the wild-type CFTR cDNA. In cell-attached patches, CFTR channel activity was not observed until stimulated by forskolin in 90% of the cells, suggesting a low level of(More)
Digital carrier phase estimation (CPE) is used in coherent optical receiver to estimate and track carrier phase. The carrier phase estimated from a single symbol is corrupted by noise; hence, it is necessary for CPE to average a block of symbols to mitigate the noise effect. Symbols with significant noise in the averaging block can severely distort the(More)
We use the analytical model for multi-®bre WDM networks to approximately analyse the network performance of limited-range wavelength conversion WDM networks. In addition, we develop a simple analytical model for multi-®bre networks with limited-range wavelength conversion capability by combining the multi-®bre network model and the limited-range wavelength(More)