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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
The DNA binding activity of p53 is required for its tumor suppressor function; we show here that this activity is cryptic but can be activated by cellular factors acting on a C-terminal regulatory domain of p53. A gel mobility shift assay demonstrated that recombinant wild-type human p53 binds DNA sequence specifically only weakly, but a monoclonal antibody(More)
BACKGROUND The DNA-binding activity of p53 is essential to its function as a tumour suppressor. Point mutations that abolish this activity have been found to occur frequently in the p53 genes of human cancer cells. Wild-type p53 protein assembles into oligomers with latent DNA-binding activity that can be activated in vitro by phosphorylation of a(More)
Post-translational modification of a carboxyl-terminal negative regulatory domain in vitro by either casein kinase II or protein kinase C allosterically activates the latent sequence-specific DNA binding function of p53. Reported here is a biochemical approach to determine the types of signaling pathways and enzymes that are involved in p53 activation in(More)
Replicative senescence in human fibroblasts is absolutely dependent on the function of the phosphoprotein p53 and correlates with activation of p53-dependent transcription. However, no evidence for posttranslational modification of p53 in senescence has been presented, raising the possibility that changes in transcriptional activity result from upregulation(More)
Reconstitution of the stages in the assembly of the p300.p53 transcription complex has identified a novel type of DNA-dependent regulation of p300-catalyzed acetylation. Phosphorylation at the CHK2 site (Ser(20)) in the N-terminal activation domain of p53 stabilized p300 binding. The phosphopeptide binding activity of p300 was mapped in vitro to two(More)
p53 is an allosterically regulated protein with a latent DNA-binding activity. Posttranslational modification of a carboxy-terminal regulatory site in vitro, by casein kinase II and protein kinase C, can activate the sequence-specific DNA-binding function of the wild-type protein. The latent form of p53 is produced in a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic(More)
The ability to separate the isoforms of human tumour suppressor protein p53 expressed in insect cells using heparin-Sepharose correlates with differences in the isoelectric point of p53, demonstrating that p53 can be heterogeneously modified and providing support for the use of insect cells as a model system for identifying novel signalling pathways that(More)
p53 protein activity as a transcription factor can be activated in vivo by antibodies that target its C-terminal negative regulatory domain suggesting that cellular enzymes that target this domain may play a role in stimulating p53-dependent gene expression. A phospho-specific monoclonal antibody to the C-terminal Ser(315) phospho-epitope was used to(More)
The transcription coactivator p300 cannot acetylate native p53 tetramers, thus revealing intrinsic conformational constraints on p300-catalyzed acetylation. Consensus site DNA is an allosteric effector that promotes acetylation of p53, suggesting that p300 has an undefined conformationally flexible interface within the p53 tetramer. To identify such(More)