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BACKGROUND Debate continues as to whether acute bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) predicts long-term outcomes in COPD. Furthermore, there is no consensus on a threshold for BDR. METHODS At baseline and during the 4-year Understanding Potential Long-term Improvements in Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT®) trial, patients had spirometry performed before(More)
OBJECTIVE Many short-term studies indicate that 5% weight loss in the obese is enough to induce significant improvements of cardiovascular risk factors. However, it is not known what degree of weight loss is required to improve risk factors over a more extended period of time or how ageing and secular trends per se are influencing risk factors during(More)
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