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BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors, but no prospective interventional studies have reported whether weight loss decreases overall mortality. In fact, many observational studies suggest that weight reduction is associated with increased mortality. METHODS The prospective, controlled(More)
PURPOSE To assess the construct validity of the Procedicus Virtual Interventional Simulator Trainer (Procedicus-VIST) and its use as a training tool. METHODS Two groups comprised of 8 interventional radiologists (experts) and 8 medical students (novices) performed 6 renal artery procedures on the Procedicus-VIST. All participants received a 45-minute(More)
To compare the learning of endovascular interventional skills by training on pig models versus virtual reality simulators. Twelve endovascular novices participated in a study consisting of a pig laboratory (P-Lab) and a virtual reality laboratory (VR-Lab). Subjects were stratified by experience and randomized into four training groups. Following 1 hr of(More)
BACKGROUND Debate continues as to whether acute bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) predicts long-term outcomes in COPD. Furthermore, there is no consensus on a threshold for BDR. METHODS At baseline and during the 4-year Understanding Potential Long-term Improvements in Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT®) trial, patients had spirometry performed before(More)
BACKGROUND Given that carotid artery stenosis (CAS) intervention is procedurally difficult, possesses an extensive learning curve, and involves a grave list of potential complications, construct validation of new non-clinical training devices is of increasing importance. PURPOSE To evaluate the construct validity of the Procedicus-Virtual Interventional(More)
BACKGROUND Gender differences may occur in many chronic diseases. We have examined the influence of gender in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long-term responses to tiotropium. METHODS Subgroup analysis of data from the Understanding the Potential Long-term Impact of Tiotropium (UPLIFT) trial (4-year, randomized, double-blind,(More)
OBJECTIVE Many short-term studies indicate that 5% weight loss in the obese is enough to induce significant improvements of cardiovascular risk factors. However, it is not known what degree of weight loss is required to improve risk factors over a more extended period of time or how ageing and secular trends per se are influencing risk factors during(More)
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