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BACKGROUND In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. METHODS We report on the(More)
Distribution of oral iodized oil capsules (IOC) is an important intervention in areas with iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and low coverage of iodized salt. The mean reported coverage of 57 IOC distribution campaigns from 1986-1994 of people aged 1-45 years in 27 districts of Tanzania was 64% (range 20-96%). This declined over subsequent distribution(More)
AIM To investigate how grandparents influence their young grandchildren's eating behaviors in Chinese three-generation families. METHODS This qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 12 parents (3 male and 9 female) and 11 grandparents (4 male and 7 female) in Beijing, China. RESULTS Three domains emerged in this study: (1)(More)
Women's nutrition has received little attention in nutrition programming, even though clinical trials and intervention trials have suggested that dietary improvement or supplementation with several nutrients may improve their health, especially in low-income settings, the main focus of this paper. Most attention so far has focused on how improvements in(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate and compare feeding practices among infants of less than 7 months of age in a rural and an urban area in Tanzania. DESIGN Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers and focus group discussions with extension workers and community leaders. SETTING Eleven villages in a rural district and 10 wards in an urban(More)
The prevalence of vitamin A (VA) deficiency, which affects about one-third of children in developing countries, is falling only slowly. This is despite extensive distribution and administration of periodic (4– to 6-monthly) high-dose VA capsules over the past 20 years, now covering a reported 80% of children in developing countries. This massive programme(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among Tarahumara women of reproductive age. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 481 women aged 12-49 years, residents of Guachochi Municipality, Chihuahua, from June to September 1998. The hemoglobin (Hb) level was measured in(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate measurement of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is complicated by factors related to definitions, timing, duration of recall, methods of analysis, and sample biases. Clearly prospective methods are likely to be more accurate but are too expensive to use in most large-scale surveys. Internationally, most surveys use a point-in-time(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine iodine levels in salt and iodine deficiency prevalence in school-aged children in 16 districts in Tanzania with previous severe iodine deficiency. DESIGN A cross-sectional study in schoolchildren. Systematic probability sampling was used to select schools and subjects for goitre assessment and urinary iodine determination. SETTING(More)
BACKGROUND Universal salt iodation will prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Globally, salt-iodation technologies mostly target large and medium-scale salt-producers. Since most producers in low-income countries are small-scale, we examined and improved the performance of hand and knapsack-sprayers used locally in Tanzania. METHODS We studied three(More)