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OBJECTIVE To investigate and compare feeding practices among infants of less than 7 months of age in a rural and an urban area in Tanzania. DESIGN Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers and focus group discussions with extension workers and community leaders. SETTING Eleven villages in a rural district and 10 wards in an urban(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has affected the infant-feeding experiences of HIV-positive mothers in South Africa. METHODS This was a qualitative interview study within a prospective cohort study. We purposively selected a subsample of 40 women from a larger cohort of 650 HIV-positive mothers for in-depth(More)
BACKGROUND There is no accepted and widely used indicator for exclusive breastfeeding since birth. Indeed, the difference between 'current status' data on exclusive breastfeeding and data on 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' is rarely recognized. We used data from a longitudinal study to examine this issue. METHODS A descriptive longitudinal,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the vitamin A and iron status of lactating women. DESIGN A population-based cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING A semi-arid rural area of Makhaza in Zimbabwe. SUBJECTS Two hundred and seven lactating women with babies aged 2-12 months. METHODS Serum retinol (SR) was measured by HPLC, serum ferritin (SF) by ELIZA,(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate measurement of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is complicated by factors related to definitions, timing, duration of recall, methods of analysis, and sample biases. Clearly prospective methods are likely to be more accurate but are too expensive to use in most large-scale surveys. Internationally, most surveys use a point-in-time(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess breastfeeding practices in infants aged 0-6 months, focussing particularly on beliefs, knowledge and practices affecting exclusive breastfeeding. DESIGN A house-to-house survey with individual interviews using a structured questionnaire, key informants interviews and focus group discussions. PARTICIPANTS One hundred and seven mothers(More)
Distribution of oral iodized oil capsules (IOC) is an important intervention in areas with iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and low coverage of iodized salt. The mean reported coverage of 57 IOC distribution campaigns from 1986-1994 of people aged 1-45 years in 27 districts of Tanzania was 64% (range 20-96%). This declined over subsequent distribution(More)
Infrared thermography and video image analysis were used to compare the development of the neurogenic flare response in deep and superficial skin layers. Neurogenic vasodilatation was induced by injection or iontophoretic application of histamine. Thermograms were recorded every 10 s to evaluate the local warming reaction. Color-video image analysis was(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of overweight among Chinese preschool children and to explore risk factors of childhood obesity focusing on parental characteristics, feeding practice and lifestyle. METHODS Data on 930 families with 2- to 6-year-old children in five kindergartens were obtained in a cross sectional study. Families were randomly selected(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the relationships between biochemical indicators of vitamin A and iron status and the intestinal helminths Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm in primary school children. SETTING Two rural governmental schools in northwestern Bangladesh. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS The sample consisted of 164 children in grades 3-5. (More)