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BACKGROUND There is no accepted and widely used indicator for exclusive breastfeeding since birth. Indeed, the difference between 'current status' data on exclusive breastfeeding and data on 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' is rarely recognized. We used data from a longitudinal study to examine this issue. METHODS A descriptive longitudinal,(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate measurement of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is complicated by factors related to definitions, timing, duration of recall, methods of analysis, and sample biases. Clearly prospective methods are likely to be more accurate but are too expensive to use in most large-scale surveys. Internationally, most surveys use a point-in-time(More)
Distribution of oral iodized oil capsules (IOC) is an important intervention in areas with iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and low coverage of iodized salt. The mean reported coverage of 57 IOC distribution campaigns from 1986-1994 of people aged 1-45 years in 27 districts of Tanzania was 64% (range 20-96%). This declined over subsequent distribution(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the vitamin A and iron status of lactating women. DESIGN A population-based cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING A semi-arid rural area of Makhaza in Zimbabwe. SUBJECTS Two hundred and seven lactating women with babies aged 2-12 months. METHODS Serum retinol (SR) was measured by HPLC, serum ferritin (SF) by ELIZA,(More)
BACKGROUND In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. METHODS We report on the(More)
Infrared thermography and video image analysis were used to compare the development of the neurogenic flare response in deep and superficial skin layers. Neurogenic vasodilatation was induced by injection or iontophoretic application of histamine. Thermograms were recorded every 10 s to evaluate the local warming reaction. Color-video image analysis was(More)
BACKGROUND Universal fortification of staple foods with iron has been widely promoted as a cost-effective strategy to reduce iron deficiency in developing-country populations. Nonetheless, relatively few efficacy trials have been reported to date to demonstrate impact on iron status. The Ultra Rice technology provides a means of delivering fortificant iron(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has affected the infant-feeding experiences of HIV-positive mothers in South Africa. METHODS This was a qualitative interview study within a prospective cohort study. We purposively selected a subsample of 40 women from a larger cohort of 650 HIV-positive mothers for in-depth(More)
  • T Greiner
  • 1996
"Weaning" is usually said to refer to the entire process during which the infant changes from full dependence on breast milk to complete independence from it. However, "wean" is sometimes used to refer to provision of an "educational diet" during the first six months when exclusive breastfeeding is the ideal; to complementary feeding; to replacement of(More)