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We describe a method to evaluate the ratio of ionic fluxes through recombinant channels expressed in a single Xenopus oocyte. A potassium channel encoded by the Drosophila Shaker gene tested by this method exhibited flux ratios far from those expected for independent ion movement. At a fixed extracellular concentration of 25 mM K+, this channel showed(More)
1. Na channel reversal potentials were studied in perfused voltage clamped squid giant axons. The concentration dependence of ion selectivity was determined with both external and internal changes in Na and ammonium concentrations. 2. A tenfold change in the internal ammonium activity results in a 42 mV shift in the reversal potential, rather than the 56 mV(More)
The block of squid axon sodium channels by H ions was studied using voltage-clamp and internal perfusion techniques. An increase in the concentration of internal permeant ions decreased the block produced by external H ions. The voltage dependence of the block was found to be nonmonotonic: it was reduced by both large positive and large negative potentials.(More)
We measured unidirectional K+ in- and efflux through an inward rectifier K channel (IRK1) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The ratio of these unidirectional fluxes differed significantly from expectations based on independent ion movement. In an extracellular solution with a K+ concentration of 25 mM, the data were described by a Ussing flux-ratio exponent,(More)
1. The concentration and voltage dependence of current through the Na channels of squid giant axons was studied. The permeant cations Na, K and ammonium were used. 2. The Na channel current at a fixed voltage saturates as the internal permeant ion concentration is increased. The half-saturation activities at 50 mV were found to be 623, 268, 161 mM for Na,(More)
The sodium flux ratio across the axolemma of internally perfused, voltage-clamped giant axons of Loligo pealei has been measured at various membrane potentials. The flux ratio exponent obtained from these measurements was about unity and independent of membrane voltage over the 50 mV range from about -20 to ł mV. These results, combined with previous(More)
The effects of changes in the concentration of calcium in solutions bathing Myxicola giant axons on the voltage dependence of sodium and potassium conductance and on the instantaneous sodium and potassium current-voltage relations have been measured. The sodium conductance-voltage relation is shifted along the voltage axis by 13 mV in the hyperpolarizing(More)
Block of K+ channels can be influenced by the ability of charged residues on the protein surface to accumulate cationic blocking ions to concentrations greater than those in bulk solution. We examined the ionic strength dependence of extracellular block of Shaker K+ channels by tetraethylammonium ions (TEA+) and by a trivalent quaternary ammonium ion,(More)
Fluid secretion relies on a close interplay between Ca(2+)-activated Cl and K channels. Salivary acinar cells contain both large conductance, BK, and intermediate conductance, IK1, K channels. Physiological fluid secretion occurs with only modest (<500 nM) increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels but BK channels in many cell types and in heterologous(More)
The actions of divalent cations on voltage-gated ion channels suggest that these cations bind to specific sites and directly influence gating kinetics. We have examined some chemical properties of the external divalent cation binding sites on neuronal potassium channels. Patch clamp techniques were used to measure the electrophysiological properties of(More)