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To investigate the effects of microgravity on murine skeletal muscle fiber size, muscle contractile protein, and enzymatic activity, female C57BL/6J mice, aged 64 days, were divided into animal enclosure module (AEM) ground control and spaceflight (SF) treatment groups. SF animals were flown on the space shuttle Endeavour (STS-108/UF-1) and subjected to(More)
The determination of hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) has been used to assess the induction of the mixed function oxygenase system (MFO) of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in UK estuaries. Induction of the MFO system denotes possible exposure to certain organic contaminants (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls) and its(More)
Cancer patients receiving radiation therapy are exposed to photon (gamma/X-ray), electron, and less commonly proton radiation. Similarly, astronauts on exploratory missions will be exposed to extended periods of lower-dose radiation from multiple sources and of multiple types, including heavy ions. Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have(More)
This portion of the study quantified the effects of a 12-day space shuttle mission (Space Transport System-108/UF-1) on body and lymphoid organ masses, activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and erythrocyte and thrombocyte characteristics in C57BL/6 mice. Animals in flight (Flt group) had 10-12% lower body mass compared with ground controls(More)
The objective of this study was to examine changes in the long bones of male C57BL/6J mice with growth and aging, and to consider the applicability of this animal for use in studying Type II osteoporosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were aged in our colony between 4 and 104 weeks (n=9-15/group). The right femur and humeri were measured for length and subjected to(More)
INTRODUCTION Irradiation of normal, non-malignant bone during cancer therapy can lead to atrophy and increased risk of fracture at several skeletal sites, particularly the hip. This bone loss has been largely attributed to damaged osteoblasts. Little attention has been given to increased bone resorption as a contributor to radiation-induced osteoporosis.(More)
Bone loss is a consequence of exposure to high-dose radiotherapy. While damage to bone vasculature and reduced proliferation of bone-forming osteoblasts has been implicated in this process, the effect of radiation on the number and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts has not been characterized. In this study, we exposed mice to a whole-body dose of 2 Gy(More)
Spaceflight results in a number of adaptations to skeletal muscle, including atrophy and shifts toward faster muscle fiber types. To identify changes in gene expression that may underlie these adaptations, we used both microarray expression analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify shifts in mRNA levels in the gastrocnemius from mice(More)
We tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would ameliorate space flight-induced effects on the immune system. Twelve male, Sprague-Dawley rats, surgically implanted with mini osmotic pumps, were subjected to space flight for 10 days on STS-77. Six rats received 10 mg/kg/day of IGF-1 and 6 rats received saline. Flight animals had a(More)
There are several aspects of the spaceflight environment that may lead to changes in immunity: mission-related psychological stress, radiation, and changes in gravity. On December 5, 2001, the space shuttle Endeavor launched for a 12-day mission to examine these effects on C57BL/6 mice for the first time. On their return, assays were performed on the(More)