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Five studies examined how interacting with the physical environment can support the development of fraction concepts. Nine- and 10-year-old children worked on fraction problems they could not complete mentally. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that manipulating physical pieces facilitated children's ability to develop an interpretation of fractions. Experiment 3(More)
The nature of the physiology and thermal regulation of the nonavian dinosaurs is the subject of debate. Previously, arguments have been made for both endothermic and ectothermic metabolisms on the basis of differing methodologies. We used clumped isotope thermometry to determine body temperatures from the fossilized teeth of large Jurassic sauropods. Our(More)
The development of more cost-effective light sources for photodynamic therapy of brain tumors would be of benefit for both research and clinical applications. In this study, the use of light-emitting diode arrays for photodynamic therapy of brain tumors with Photofrin porfimer sodium was investigated. An inflatable balloon device with a light-emitting diode(More)
Three studies examined whether mathematics can propel the development of physical understanding. In Experiment 1, 10-year-olds solved balance scale problems that used easy-to-count discrete quantities or hard-to-count continuous quantities. Discrete quantities led to age typical performances. Continuous quantities caused performances like those of(More)
This paper evaluates the Human Affect Recording Tool (HART), a Computer Assisted Direct Observation (CADO) application that facilitates scientific sampling. HART enforces an established method for systematic direct observation in Educational Data Mining (EDM) research, the Baker Rodrigo Ocumpaugh Monitoring Protocol [25] [26]. This examination provides(More)
This paper presents the results of a study comparing student learning in an inquiry-based and a traditional course in biotransport. Collaborating learning scientists and biomedical engineers designed and implemented an inquiry-based method of instruction that followed learning principles presented in the National Research Council report "How People Learn"(More)
This paper presents the results of a study comparing student learning in a challenge-based and a traditional course in biotransport. Collaborating learning scientists and biomedical engineers designed a challenge-based method of instruction that followed learning principles presented in the U.S. National Research Council report " How People Learn. " In this(More)
In this paper we examine the possibilities of applying predictive analysis to users' written communication via comments in an open-ended online social networking forum: Scratch.mit.edu. Scratch is primarily used by youth ages 8-16 years to program software like games, animations, and stories; their social interactions take place around commenting, remixing,(More)