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Previous studies in rat and mouse have shown that brief exposure to the bitter stimulus denatonium induces an increase in [Ca2+]i due to Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores, rather than Ca2+ influx. We report here that prolonged exposure to denatonium induces sustained increases in [Ca2+]i that are dependent on Ca2+ influx. Similar results were(More)
Patterning across the anteroposterior axis of the vertebrate limb bud involves a signal from the polarizing region, a small group of cells at the posterior margin of the bud. Retinoic acid (RA; Tickle, C., Alberts, B., Wolpert, L. and Lee, J. (1982) Nature 296, 554-566) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh; Riddle, R. D. Johnson, R. L., Laufer, E. and Tabin, C. J.(More)
Sour taste is mediated by acids with the degree of sourness a function of proton concentration. Recently, several members of the acid-sensing ion channel subfamily (ASICs) were cloned from taste cells and proposed to mediate sour taste. However, it is not known whether sour responses in taste cells resemble the responses mediated by ASICs. Using the whole(More)
Controlling stimulus access to sensory organs allows animals to optimize sensory reception and prevent damage. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects pheromones and other semiochemicals to regulate innate social and sexual behaviors. This semiochemical detection generally requires the VNO to draw in chemical fluids, such as bodily secretions, which are complex(More)
Phospholipase C (PLC) and internal Ca(2+) stores are involved in a variety of cellular functions. However, our understanding of PLC in mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) is generally limited to its controversial role in odor transduction. Here we employed single-cell Ca(2+) imaging and molecular approaches to investigate PLC-mediated Ca(2+)(More)
Although a number of genes have been found to have restricted expression domains in the embryonic forebrain and midbrain, it remains largely unknown how the expression of these genes is regulated at the cellular level. In this study, we explored the mechanisms for the differential expression of region-specific transcription factors in neuroepithelial cells(More)
Few neuro-endocrinological studies have examined the relationship between occlusal disharmony and stress. To determine the effect of occlusal disharmony on the central nervous system, we measured plasma corticosterone and extracellular noradrenaline in the vicinity of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in rats both with and without incisal caps. After(More)
Inhaled airborne irritants elicit sensory responses in trigeminal nerves innervating the nasal epithelium, leading to protective reflexes. The sensory mechanisms involved in the detection of odorous irritants are poorly understood. We identified a large population of solitary chemosensory cells expressing the transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5)(More)
Extracellular nucleotides such as ATP are the signaling molecules which bind to membrane receptors (P2X ligand-gated ion channels and G-protein-coupled P2Y families). In the gustatory system, it is known that P2X receptors are expressed exclusively in nerve fibers innervating the taste buds. Also, P2Y receptors are suggested to play some important roles in(More)
Previous studies suggest that acetylcholine (ACh) is a transmitter released from taste cells as well as a transmitter in cholinergic efferent neurons innervating taste buds. However, the physiological effects on taste cells have not been established. I examined effects of ACh on taste-receptor cells by monitoring [Ca2+]i. ACh increased [Ca2+]i in both rat(More)