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The vertebrate organizer can induce a complete body axis when transplanted to the ventral side of a host embryo by virtue of its distinct head and trunk inducing properties. Wingless/Wnt antagonists secreted by the organizer have been identified as head inducers. Their ectopic expression can promote head formation, whereas ectopic activation of Wnt(More)
Alagille syndrome (AGS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by intrahepatic cholestasis and abnormalities of heart, eye and vertebrae, as well as a characteristic facial appearance. Identification of rare AGS patients with cytogenetic deletions has allowed mapping of the gene of 20p12. We have generated a cloned contig of the critical region and(More)
The pathogenicity of influenza virus infection in the mice involves, at least in part, overreaction of the immune responses of the host rather than a direct effect of virus multiplication. Xanthine oxidase, which is responsible for the generation of oxygen free radicals, was elevated in serum and lung tissue of mice infected with influenza virus. To test(More)
STUDY DESIGN The mechanical properties of multilevel human cervical spines were investigated by applying pure rotational moments to each specimen and measuring multidirectional intervertebral motions. OBJECTIVES To document intervertebral main and coupled motions of the cervical spine in the form of load-displacement curves. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA(More)
In order to clarify the significance of mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in the genesis and development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in an aflatoxin B1 low-exposure area, the spectrum, i.e., incidence, type, and site, of p53 gene mutations was examined in 169 tissue samples resected mainly from Japanese patients using single-strand(More)
We used a free vascularized small periosteal bone graft to treat scaphoid nonunion. The graft consisted of periosteum, full-thickness cortex, and the underlying cancellous bone and was harvested from the supracondylar region of the femur. The graft was nourished by the articular branch of the descending geniculate artery and vein. Unlike the currently used(More)
STUDY DESIGN This study analyzed the natural course of cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis by serial radiographs. OBJECTIVES The purpose was to determine the pattern of progression of cervical spine lesions in rheumatoid arthritis and predictors for the extent of progression. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Subluxation frequently occurs as a(More)
Our previous reports indicated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes to the malignant phenotype and resistance to apoptosis in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cell line Akata (N. Shimizu, A. Tanabe-Tochikura, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Takada, J. Virol. 68:6069-6073, 1994; J. Komano, M. Sugiura, and K. Takada, J. Virol. 72:9150-9156, 1998). Here we report that the(More)
Chattonella marina, a raphidophycean flagellate, is one of the most toxic red tide phytoplankton and causes severe damage to fish farming. Recent studies demonstrated that Chattonella sp. generates superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (.OH), which may be responsible for the toxicity of C. marina. In this study, we found the(More)