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The endoskeletal origin of the turtle carapace
The turtle body plan, with its solid shell, deviates radically from those of other tetrapods. The dorsal part of the turtle shell, or the carapace, consists mainly of costal and neural bony plates,Expand
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Anatomical integration of the sacral–hindlimb unit coordinated by GDF11 underlies variation in hindlimb positioning in tetrapods
Elucidating how body parts from different primordia are integrated during development is essential for understanding the nature of morphological evolution. In tetrapod evolution, while the positionExpand
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Evolution of the vertebrate skeleton: morphology, embryology, and development
Two major skeletal systems—the endoskeleton and exoskeleton—are recognized in vertebrate evolution. Here, we propose that these two systems are distinguished primarily by their relative positions,Expand
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A new scenario of the evolutionary derivation of the mammalian diaphragm from shoulder muscles
The evolutionary origin of the diaphragm remains unclear, due to the lack of a comparable structure in other extant taxa. However, recent researches into the developmental mechanism of this structureExpand
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Developmental genetic bases behind the independent origin of the tympanic membrane in mammals and diapsids
The amniote middle ear is a classical example of the evolutionary novelty. Although paleontological evidence supports the view that mammals and diapsids (modern reptiles and birds) independentlyExpand
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Origin of the unique morphology of the shoulder girdle in turtles
The shoulder girdle of turtles has a triradiate morphology. Although its dorsal process represents the scapular blade, the skeletal identities of the two ventral processes remain uncertain. ToExpand
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Outflow tract septation and the aortic arch system in reptiles: lessons for understanding the mammalian heart
BackgroundCardiac outflow tract patterning and cell contribution are studied using an evo-devo approach to reveal insight into the development of aorto-pulmonary septation.ResultsWe studied embryonicExpand
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The evolutionary origin of the turtle shell and its dependence on the axial arrest of the embryonic rib cage.
Turtles are characterized by their possession of a shell with dorsal and ventral moieties: the carapace and the plastron, respectively. In this review, we try to provide answers to the question ofExpand
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The neural crest and evolution of the head/trunk interface in vertebrates.
The migration and distribution patterns of neural crest (NC) cells reflect the distinct embryonic environments of the head and trunk: cephalic NC cells migrate predominantly along the dorsolateralExpand
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Palaeospondylus as a primitive hagfish
BackgroundThe taxonomic position of the Middle Devonian fish-like animal Palaeospondylus has remained enigmatic, due mainly to the inability to identify homologous cranial elements. This animal hasExpand
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