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Intestinal microfold cells (M cells) are an enigmatic lineage of intestinal epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses through the uptake and transcytosis of luminal antigens. The mechanisms of M-cell differentiation are poorly understood, as the rarity of these cells has hampered analysis. Exogenous administration of the cytokine RANKL can(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Epithelial cells that cover the intestinal mucosal surface maintain immune homeostasis and tolerance in the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate epithelial immune functions. Epithelial cells are distinct in that they are highly polarized; this polarity is, at least in part,(More)
The present study was performed to examine whether probiotics affect Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in human colonic epithelial cells. Culture supernatants or heat-killed bacteria of Bacillus mesentericus TO-A, Clostridium butyricum TO-A, and Streptococcus faecalis T-110 were applied to human colonic epithelial cells. Treatment with C. butyricum(More)
This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of endoscopic resection of 26 sporadic (i. e., not associated with polyposis syndrome) nonampullary duodenal lesions representing high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma (duodenal HGD/IMC) in 23 patients. No severe complications such as perforation were observed, but three cases of delayed(More)
The bombesin (Bn) receptor family includes the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRPR) and neuromedin B (NMBR) receptors, Bn receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) and Bn receptor subtype 4 (BB(4)). They share 50% homology, yet their affinities for gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) differ. The determinants of GRP high affinity for GRPR and BB(4), and low affinity for BRS-3 are(More)
BACKGROUND Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become widely accepted as a standard treatment for gastric epithelial neoplasms. Antithrombotic agents are widely used to prevent thromboembolic disease. However, the feasibility of endoscopic procedures for patients using such agents has been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to identify(More)
In some cell types, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with tight junctions. The present study was performed to determine the roles of GJIC in regulation of the barrier function of tight junctions. Caco-2 human colonic cells were used as a monolayer model, and barrier function was monitored by measuring mannitol permeability and(More)
AIM To investigate whether flexible spectral color enhancement (FICE) improves diagnostic yields of capsule endoscopy (CE) for obscure gastro-intestinal bleeding (OGIB). METHODS The study subjects consisted of 81 patients. Using FICE, there were three different sets with different wavelengths. Using randomly selected sets of FICE, images of CE were(More)
Genome-wide association studies have revealed a link between autophagy-related (ATG) genes and susceptibility to Crohn’s disease. This suggests underlying involvement of autophagy impairment in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease. This study was performed to investigate the pathophysiological importance of autophagy impairment in intestinal epithelial cells(More)
To determine the role of Smad3 in re-epithelialization and inflammation, experimental colitis was induced in Smad3 heterozygous mice and their wild-type littermates by single intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in ethanol. The area of epithelial deficiency was significantly reduced in the heterozygotes on the 4th-6th day(More)