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Intestinal microfold cells (M cells) are an enigmatic lineage of intestinal epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses through the uptake and transcytosis of luminal antigens. The mechanisms of M-cell differentiation are poorly understood, as the rarity of these cells has hampered analysis. Exogenous administration of the cytokine RANKL can(More)
It is established that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves motor function in advanced Parkinson's disease, but its effects on autonomic function remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gastric emptying. A total of 16 patients with Parkinson's disease(More)
CD4(+) T cells play a central role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) via high-level production of effector cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α. To better characterize the colitogenic CD4(+) T cells, we examined their expression of CXCR6, a chemokine receptor that is expressed by T cells upon activation and is upregulated in several(More)
BACKGROUND Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become widely accepted as a standard treatment for gastric epithelial neoplasms. Antithrombotic agents are widely used to prevent thromboembolic disease. However, the feasibility of endoscopic procedures for patients using such agents has been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to identify(More)
OBJECTIVE Transnasal endoscopy may be used to observe the head and neck part readily without excessive reflexes. We aimed to evaluate the utility and stability of transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (TN-EGD) in comparison with transoral EGD (TO-EGD) for observation of the pharynx. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study METHODS A total of 497 patients received(More)
BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis is a lifelong, immunologically mediated disease. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are now available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. An interferon-free regimen appears useful, safe and effective for many patients for whom interferon-based treatment is contraindicated. CASE PRESENTATION We studied(More)
BACKGROUND Laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are generally defined as lesions >10 mm in diameter, are characterized by lateral expansion along the luminal wall with a low vertical axis. In contrast to other forms of tumor, LSTs are generally considered to have a superficial growth pattern and the potential for malignancy. We focused on this morphological(More)
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori as the third-line triple therapy with rabeprazole (RPZ) + amoxicillin (AMPC) + levofloxacin (LVFX) and high-dose RPZ + AMPC. Methods. 51 patients who failed Japanese first-line (proton pump inhibitor (PPI) + AMPC + clarithromycin) and second-line(More)
A 75-year-old man who had undergone partial gastrectomy was referred to our hospital due to worsening leg edema, loose stools and malnutrition. Double balloon enteroscopy followed by insertion of an indwelling ileus tube was performed to investigate the microbial flora and for washing inside the blind loop. Trophozoites of Giardia were detected in the(More)
Background and Objective. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is widely recognized to cause severe gastrointestinal disorders like nausea, vomiting, and appetite loss. The aim of this study was to assess whether cisplatin-based transcatheter arterial infusion (TAI) chemotherapy reduces plasma ghrelin levels and food intake in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)(More)