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Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) paralogs with unknown functions exist in various species. We now report novel 'protein lysylation' by an Escherichia coli lysyl-tRNA synthetase paralog, GenX/PoxA/YjeA. X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that the structure of the GenX protein resembles that of a class II aaRS. Further in vitro studies reveal that it(More)
Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) esterifies pyrrolysine to tRNA(Pyl). In this study, N(epsilon)-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-L-lysine (BocLys) and N(epsilon)-allyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine (AlocLys) were esterified to tRNA(Pyl) by PylRS. Crystal structures of a PylRS catalytic fragment complexed with BocLys and an ATP analog and with AlocLys-AMP revealed that PylRS(More)
The ATP-pyrophosphate exchange reaction catalyzed by Arg-tRNA, Gln-tRNA and Glu-tRNA synthetases requires the assistance of the cognate tRNA. tRNA also assists Arg-tRNA synthetase in catalyzing the pyrophosphorolysis of synthetic Arg-AMP at low pH. The mechanism by which the 3'-end A76, and in particular its hydroxyl group, of the cognate tRNA is involved(More)
We report the molecular cloning and characterization of two novel beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases (beta-HEX, EC 3.2.1.52) from Paenibacillus sp. strain TS12. The two beta-HEXs (Hex1 and Hex2) were 70% identical in primary structure, and the N-terminal region of both enzymes showed significant similarity with beta-HEXs belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 20(More)
We report a method for site-specifically incorporating l-lysine derivatives into proteins in mammalian cells, based on the expression of the pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS)-tRNA(Pyl) pair from Methanosarcina mazei. Different types of external promoters were tested for the expression of tRNA(Pyl) in Chinese hamster ovary cells. When tRNA(Pyl) was(More)
Two isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases (IleRSs) encoded by two distinct genes (ileS1 and ileS2) were identified in pseudomonic acid (mupirocin)-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens. The most striking difference between the two IleRSs (IleRS-R1 and IleRS-R2) is the difference in their abilities to resist pseudomonic acid. Purified IleRS-R2 showed no sensitivity to(More)
Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) from Methanosarcina mazei was overexpressed in an N-terminally truncated form PylRS(c270) in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The native PylRS(c270) crystals in complex with an ATP analogue belonged to space(More)
The genetic encoding of synthetic or "non-natural" amino acids promises to diversify the functions and structures of proteins. We applied rapid codon-reassignment for creating Escherichia coli strains unable to terminate translation at the UAG "stop" triplet, but efficiently decoding it as various tyrosine and lysine derivatives. This complete change in the(More)
Pyrrolysine, a lysine derivative with a bulky pyrroline ring, is the "22nd" genetically encoded amino acid. In the present study, the carboxy-terminal catalytic fragment of Methanosarcina mazei pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) was analyzed by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis. The catalytic fragment ligated tRNA(Pyl) with pyrrolysine(More)
Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS), an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) recently found in some methanogenic archaea and bacteria, recognizes an unusually large lysine derivative, L-pyrrolysine, as the substrate, and attaches it to the cognate tRNA (tRNA(Pyl)). The PylRS-tRNA(Pyl) pair interacts with none of the endogenous aaRS-tRNA pairs in Escherichia(More)