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Patterning of the bipotential retinal primordia (the optic vesicles) into neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium depends on its interaction with overlaying surface ectoderm. The surface ectoderm expresses FGFs and the optic vesicles express FGF receptors. Previous FGF-expression data and in vitro analyses support the hypothesis that FGF signaling(More)
Upon morphogenesis, the simple neuroepithelium of the optic vesicle gives rise to four basic tissues in the vertebrate optic cup: pigmented epithelium, sensory neural retina, secretory ciliary body and muscular iris. Pigmented epithelium and neural retina are established through interactions with specific environments and signals: periocular mesenchyme/BMP(More)
The folding pattern of the brain cortex is a precisely regulated process, but the mechanism involved during development remains unclear. A proposed theory predicts that the initiation of cortical folding depends, at least partly, on nonuniform distribution of neuronal differentiation and neurite growth. We tested this theory experimentally, by remodeling(More)
We investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors such as sodium butyrate (SB) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by human glioblastoma T98G, U251MG, and U87MG cells. The glioblastoma cells secreted three VEGF isoforms, VEGF (189), (165), and (121), although the expression levels of(More)
We investigated whether or not a combination of the selective thrombin inhibitor, argatroban, and the free radical scavenger, edaravone (MCI-186), ameliorates postischemic hypoperfusion and decreases mortality after 15 min of forebrain ischemia in the gerbil. Argatroban or edaravone alone significantly increased postischemic cerebral blood flow and(More)
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) has increasingly been recognized, and it is well known that SIH is sometimes complicated by chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). In this study, 55 cases of SIH with SDH were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on therapeutic strategies and outcomes. Of 169 SIH cases (75 males, 84 females), 55 (36 males, 19 females) were(More)
AIM The aim of this article is to investigate the pathophysiology underlying the alternation of the cognitive function and neuronal activity in spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). METHODS Fifteen patients with SIH underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and working-memory (WM) test one day before and one month after a(More)
BACKGROUND Radioisotope (RI) cisternography is considered to be the most important examination for the final diagnosis of intracranial hypotension, typically indicating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage as RI parathecal activity. Early bladder filling (EBF) of RI is another important finding. However, whether EBF without parathecal activity represents real(More)
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