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The traditional Japanese medicine rikkunshito ameliorates the nitric oxide-associated delay in gastric emptying. Whether rikkunshito affects gastric motility associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin: 5-HT) receptors or dopamine receptors is unknown. We examined the effects of rikkunshito on the delay in gastric emptying induced by 5-HT or dopamine(More)
6R-L-erythro-Tetrahydrobiopterin (6R-BH4) is a cofactor for aromatic L-amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthase. Recently, we have reported that independently of its cofactor activities, 6R-BH4 acts from the outside of neurons in the brain to enhance the release of monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine. To characterize the pharmacological(More)
To clarify monoaminergic regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rat hippocampus, the effects of administration of monoamines through a dialysis probe on extracellular ACh levels were examined using in vivo brain microdialysis combined with a novel column-switching HPLC system. Infusion of dopamine or 5-hydroxytryptamine, but not noradrenaline,(More)
Male and female differ genetically by their respective sex chromosome composition, that is, XY as male and XX as female. Although both X and Y chromosomes evolved from the same ancestor pair of autosomes, the Y chromosome harbors male-specific genes, which play pivotal roles in male sex determination, germ cell differentiation, and masculinization of(More)
The human TSPY is the putative gene for the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome (GBY). Various molecular, pathological and transgenic mouse studies suggest that TSPY is a Y-located proto-oncogene contributing to the initiation/progression in human cancers, including germ cell tumors and various somatic cancers, such as prostate and liver cancer, and(More)
TSPY is a Y-encoded gene that is expressed in normal testicular germ cells and various cancer types including germ cell tumor, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and prostate cancer. Currently, the correlation between TSPY expression and oncogenic development has not been established, particularly in somatic cancers. To establish such correlation, we(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it is a serious global health problem with two billion people exposed to it worldwide. HBx, an essential factor for viral replication and a putative oncoprotein encoded by the HBV genome, has been shown to promote oncogenic properties at multiple sites in HBV-infected(More)
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