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The gastrointestinal tract of mammals is inhabited by hundreds of distinct species of commensal microorganisms that exist in a mutualistic relationship with the host. How commensal microbiota influence the host immune system is poorly understood. We show here that colonization of the small intestine of mice with a single commensal microbe, segmented(More)
CD4(+) T regulatory cells (T(regs)), which express the Foxp3 transcription factor, play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we show that in mice, T(regs) were most abundant in the colonic mucosa. The spore-forming component of indigenous intestinal microbiota, particularly clusters IV and XIVa of the genus Clostridium, promoted(More)
Commensal microbes can have a substantial impact on autoimmune disorders, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. We report that autoimmune arthritis was strongly attenuated in the K/BxN mouse model under germ-free (GF) conditions, accompanied by reductions in serum autoantibody titers, splenic autoantibody-secreting(More)
Interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD4(+) T lymphocytes (T(H)17 cells) constitute a subset of T-helper cells involved in host defence and several immune disorders. An intriguing feature of T(H)17 cells is their selective and constitutive presence in the intestinal lamina propria. Here we show that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) that can be derived from(More)
Intestinal Th17 cells are induced and accumulate in response to colonization with a subgroup of intestinal microbes such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and certain extracellular pathogens. Here, we show that adhesion of microbes to intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) is a critical cue for Th17 induction. Upon monocolonization of germ-free mice or(More)
Probiotics are used for the improvement of gut disorders. To explore the potential of probiotics, a gnotobiotic study using BALB/c mice to analyze epithelial gene expression was performed. Microarray analysis of probiotic strain-monoassociated mice showed that Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Bifidobacterium breve Yakult noticeably affected gene expression(More)
AIM To determine the anti-inflammatory activity of probiotic Bifidobacteria in Bifidobacteria-fermented milk (BFM) which is effective against active ulcerative colitis (UC) and exacerbations of UC, and to explore the immunoregulatory mechanisms. METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from UC patients or HT-29 cells were co-cultured with(More)
Physical separation between the mammalian immune system and commensal bacteria is necessary to limit chronic inflammation. However, selective species of commensal bacteria can reside within intestinal lymphoid tissues of healthy mammals. Here, we demonstrate that lymphoid-tissue-resident commensal bacteria (LRC) colonized murine dendritic cells and(More)