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Central to innate immunity is the sensing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by cytosolic and membrane-associated receptors. In particular, DNA is a potent activator of immune responses during infection or tissue damage, and evidence indicates that, in addition to the membrane-associated Toll-like receptor 9, an unidentified cytosolic DNA sensor(s)(More)
Signaling by RANKL is essential for terminal differentiation of monocytes/macrophages into osteoclasts. The TRAF6 and c-Fos signaling pathways both play important roles downstream of RANKL. We show here that RANKL selectively induces NFATc1 expression via these two pathways. RANKL also evokes Ca(2+) oscillations that lead to calcineurin-mediated activation(More)
Histone H3 Lys 9 (H3-K9) methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark for transcriptional silencing. G9a is the major mammalian H3-K9 methyltransferase that targets euchromatic regions and is essential for murine embryogenesis. There is a single G9a-related methyltransferase in mammals, called GLP/Eu-HMTase1. Here we show that GLP is also important for H3-K9(More)
While bile acids (BAs) have long been known to be essential in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol catabolism, in recent years an important role for BAs as signalling molecules has emerged. BAs activate mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, are ligands for the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) TGR5 and activate nuclear hormone receptors such as(More)
In autoimmune arthritis, traditionally classified as a T helper (Th) type 1 disease, the activation of T cells results in bone destruction mediated by osteoclasts, but how T cells enhance osteoclastogenesis despite the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of interferon (IFN)-gamma remains to be elucidated. Here, we examine the effect of various Th cell subsets on(More)
Protein palmitoylation is the most common posttranslational lipid modification; its reversibility mediates protein shuttling between intracellular compartments. A large family of DHHC (Asp-His-His-Cys) proteins has emerged as protein palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs). However, mechanisms that regulate these PATs in a physiological context remain unknown. In(More)
Genome-wide studies reveal that transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is dynamically regulated. To obtain a comprehensive view of a single transcription cycle, we switched on transcription of five long human genes (>100 kbp) with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and monitored (using microarrays, RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, and(More)
Costimulatory signals are required for activation of immune cells, but it is not known whether they contribute to other biological systems. The development and homeostasis of the skeletal system depend on the balance between bone formation and resorption. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) regulates the differentiation of bone-resorbing cells,(More)
Wnt signaling through beta-catenin and TCF maintains preadipocytes in an un-differentiated proliferative state; however, the molecular pathway has not been completely defined. By integrating gene expression microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation-chip, and cell-based experimental approaches, we show that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activates the expression(More)
In this study, we defined the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARdelta) in metabolic homeostasis by using subtype selective agonists. Analysis of rat L6 myotubes treated with the PPARdelta subtype-selective agonist, GW501516, by the Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays revealed that PPARdelta controls fatty acid oxidation(More)