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In this study, 40 Japanese, 44 German and 39 Mexican women were presented with 18 everyday odorants. They were asked to rate them for intensity on a six-point scale from not detectable to very strong, for pleasantness on an 11-point scale from -5, to neutral at 0, to +5, and for familiarity on a six-point scale from completely unknown to extremely familiar.(More)
There is a growing appreciation that experience with odors may strongly influence their perception. To further investigate this, the responses of 40 Japanese and 44 age-matched German women to everyday odorants were compared. Subjects were presented with 18 stimuli in squeeze bottles and asked to rate them according to intensity, familiarity, pleasantness(More)
Magnetic fields (MFs) from gustatory stimulation with 1 M NaCl and 3 mM saccharin were recorded from the human brain by using a whole-cortex SQUID system. The averaged onset latency of MFs was 93 ms for NaCl and 172 ms for saccharin and no response was obtained for water. A high correlation coefficient was noted between the difference of onset MFs latencies(More)
When taste stimuli are presented with specific odor stimuli, the perceived intensity of taste is enhanced, a phenomenon called odor-induced taste enhancement. There is a possibility, however, that the odor substances might have stimulated the taste receptors in the oral cavity as well as odor receptors in the nasal cavity because the odor substances were(More)
Evoked potentials are widely used in clinical medicine for objective evaluation of sensory disturbances. However, gustatory evoked potentials (GEPs) have not been extensively studied due to lack of agreement among investigators regarding the waveforms. In this study GEPs and gustatory magnetic fields (GEMfs) were simultaneously recorded from five subjects(More)
Gustatory activated regions in the cerebral cortex have not been identified precisely in humans. In this study we recorded the magnetic fields from the brain in response to two tastants, 1 M NaCl and 3 mM saccharin. We estimated the location of areas activated sequentially after the onset of stimulation with magnetic source imaging. We investigated the(More)
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has recently revealed that the transitions between the parietal operculum (Pop) and the insula (area G) and the ventral end of the central sulcus (cs) were activated with the shortest latency by instrumental gustatory stimulation, which suggests that the location of the primary gustatory area is in these two regions. However,(More)
It is important to learn about changes in both taste and odor perceptions with increasing age, because the taste of foods we encounter in our daily life is strongly affected by their smell. This study discusses the difference in qualitative taste and odor discrimination between the elderly and the young. Tastants and odorants used in this study were(More)
The purpose of this study, which comprised 2 experiments, was to investigate cognitive effects on odor perception. An odor was presented using an olfactometer. In Experiment 1 ("continuous" presentation), anethole, an odor unfamiliar to most Japanese individuals, was presented continuously for 1 session (20 min), whereas in Experiment 2 ("intermittent"(More)