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Naturally occurring nucleotide modifications within RNA have been proposed to be structural determinants for innate immune recognition. We tested this hypothesis in the context of native nonself-RNAs. Isolated, fully modified native bacterial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) induced significant secretion of IFN-α from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a(More)
Acute brain lesions induce profound alterations of the peripheral immune response comprising the opposing phenomena of early immune activation and subsequent immunosuppression. The mechanisms underlying this brain-immune signaling are largely unknown. We used animal models for experimental brain ischemia as a paradigm of acute brain lesions and additionally(More)
Recognition of foreign nucleic acids is important for the induction of an innate immune response against invading pathogens. Although the pathways involved in sensing bacterial DNA and viral RNA are now well established, only limited knowledge is available on mechanisms underlying recognition of bacterial RNA. It has been reported that intracellular(More)
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 inhibitors play an important role in regulating immune responses. Galiellalactone (GL) is a fungal secondary metabolite known to interfere with the binding of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (pSTAT)-3 as well of pSTAT-6 dimers to their target DNA in vitro. Intra nasal(More)
The significance of bacterial RNA recognition for initiating innate immune responses against invading pathogens has only recently started to be elucidated. Bacterial RNA is an important trigger of inflammasome activation, resulting in caspase-1-dependent cleavage of pro-IL-1β into the active form. It was reported previously that prolonged treatment with(More)
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome plays an important role in inflammation by controlling the maturation and secretion of the cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in response to multiple stimuli including pore-forming toxins, particulate matter, and ATP. Although the pathways activated by the(More)
A fundamental mechanism of the innate immune system is the recognition, via extra- and intracellular pattern-recognition receptors, of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. A prominent example is represented by foreign nucleic acids, triggering the activation of several signaling pathways. Among these, the endosomal toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is known to(More)
Toll-like receptor 7 regulates pancreatic carci-nogenesis in mice and humans. P ancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis: For local disease, the 5-y survival rate is approximately 20% and median survival in locally advanced disease is only about 10 mo. Carcinogenesis is associated with chronic inflammation showing that innate(More)