Tatiana Smirnova

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Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and homocarnosine (gamma-aminobutyric acid-L-histidine) are two naturally occurring dipeptides with potential neuroprotective and neurotransmitter functions in the brain. Peptidase activities degrading both carnosine and homocarnosine have been described previously, but the genes linked to these activities were unknown.(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) accumulate in the CNS during inflammation and may contribute to local immune responses. Two DC subsets present in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are probably recruited from myeloid (CD11c(+)CD123(dim)) and plasmacytoid (CD11c(-)CD123(high)) blood DC. In bacterial meningitis and especially in Lyme meningoencephalitis, numbers of myeloid(More)
Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) inhibits both death receptor- and mitochondrial/ER-mediated pathways of apoptosis. Although expressed mainly in terminally differentiated cells, ARC is markedly upregulated in a variety of human cancers, where its potential contributions have not yet been defined. In this study, we provide evidence(More)
Neu (HER2/ErbB2) is overexpressed in 25% to 30% of human breast cancer, correlating with a poor prognosis. Researchers in previous studies who used the mouse mammary tumor virus Neu-transgenic mouse model (MMTV-Neu) demonstrated that the Neu-YB line had increased production of CXCL12 and increased metastasis, whereas the Neu-YD line had decreased(More)
We describe an in vivo invasion assay that enables the collection of invasive cells from the primary tumor. In addition to determination of the endogenous, unstimulated invasive properties of cells in vivo, the assay can take advantage of the chemotactic properties of cancer cells. Microneedles are filled with a mixture of extracellular matrix components(More)
Many malignancies show increased expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family member ErbB3 (HER3). ErbB3 binds heregulin β-1 (HRGβ1) and forms a heterodimer with other ErbB family members, such as ErbB2 (HER2) or EGF receptor (EGFR; HER1), enhancing phosphorylation of specific C-terminal tyrosine residues and activation of downstream(More)
An important step in the process of metastasis from the primary tumor is invasive spread into the surrounding stroma. Using an in vivo invasion assay, we have previously shown that imposed gradients of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) can induce invasion through an EGF/CSF-1 paracrine loop between cancer cells and(More)
Memo is an evolutionarily conserved protein with a critical role in cell motility. We found that Memo was required for migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro and spontaneous lung metastasis from breast cancer cell xenografts in vivo. Biochemical assays revealed that Memo is a copper-dependent redox enzyme that promoted a more oxidized(More)
Invasion of tumor cells into the local stroma is an important component in cancer progression. Here we report studies of the in vivo invasion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells in response to applied gradients of a growth factor [epidermal growth factor (EGF)] and a chemokine (CXCL12), using orthotopic floor-of-mouth models. Analysis of(More)
In vitro regeneration of complete organisms from diverse cell types is a spectacular property of plant cells. Despite the great importance of plant regeneration for plant breeding and biotechnology, its molecular basis is still largely unclear and many important crop plants have remained recalcitrant to regeneration. Hormone-exposure protocols to trigger(More)