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Microtubules in solutions, observed under a dark-field microscope, show incessant Brownian movement such as translational, rotational and flexing motion. A large number of microtubules, spontaneously stuck to the under surface of a coverslip, were photographed and the contour lengths and end-to-end distances of their images were measured. From the(More)
A simple and rapid method for preparing plasma membranes from isolated cells or tissues is described. The membranes were characterised (a) biochemically by an analysis of specific marker enzymes, (b) by quantitation of cell surface receptors, and (c) immunologically by their ability to elicit specific allogeneic responses from cytotoxic T cells in secondary(More)
Proinflammatory cytokines are factors that induce ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in skeletal muscle, causing muscle atrophy. Although isoflavones, as potent antioxidative nutrients, have been known to reduce muscle damage during the catabolic state, the non-antioxidant effects of isoflavones against muscle atrophy are not well known. Here we(More)
Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs when the rate of protein degradation exceeds that of protein synthesis in various catabolic conditions, such as fasting, disuse, aging, and chronic diseases. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling stimulates muscle growth and suppresses muscle protein breakdown. In atrophied muscles, ubiquitin ligase, Cbl-b, increases(More)
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