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BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
BACKGROUND Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the definition and measurement of these weights. Our(More)
BACKGROUND The UK has had universal free health care and public health programmes for more than six decades. Several policy initiatives and structural reforms of the health system have been undertaken. Health expenditure has increased substantially since 1990, albeit from relatively low levels compared with other countries. We used data from the Global(More)
BACKGROUND Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder in which macular edema (ME) may develop, with a consequent reduction in visual acuity. The visual prognosis in CRVO-ME is poor in a substantial proportion of patients, especially those with the ischemic subtype, and until recently there has been no treatment of proven(More)
BACKGROUND Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a relatively common retinal vascular disorder in which macular oedema may develop, with a consequent reduction in visual acuity. Until recently there has been no treatment of proven benefit, but growing evidence supports the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. OBJECTIVES To(More)
PURPOSE To describe a systematic review of population-based prevalence studies of visual impairment (VI) and blindness worldwide over the past 32 years that informs the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study. METHODS A systematic review (Stage 1) of medical literature from 1 January 1980 to 31 January 2012 identified indexed articles(More)
Autoimmune retinopathy encompasses a spectrum of rare autoimmune diseases that primarily affect retinal photoreceptor function, and include cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR) and presumed non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR). Autoimmune retinopathy typically presents in the fifth and sixth decades with(More)
The term autoimmune retinopathy encompasses a spectrum of rare autoimmune diseases that affect retinal function, often but not exclusively at the level of the photoreceptor. They typically present with painless visual loss, which may be accompanied by normal fundus examination. Some are progressive, often rapidly. They present a diagnostic challenge because(More)