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RATIONALE Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to coexist and interact with dopamine in the regulation of behaviour. Two different CCK receptors (CCK1 and CCK2) have an opposite influence on the activity of dopamine neurons. Stimulation of CCK2 receptors decreases the release of dopamine and that receptor could mediate the neuroleptic-like effect of CCK. (More)
This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Degenerating cartilage releases potential danger signals that react with Toll-like receptor (TLR) type danger receptors. We investigated the presence and regulation of TLR1, TLR2, and TLR9 in human chondrocytes. METHODS We studied TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 mRNA (qRT-PCR) and receptor proteins (by immunostaining) in primary mature(More)
During adipogenic differentiation human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) produce collagen type IV. In immunofluorescence staining differentiating hMSCs started to express collagen type IV when Oil Red O-positive fat droplets appeared intracellularly. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction confirmed progressive increase of collagen type IV α1 and α2(More)
It was suggested that human mesenchymal stromal cells might contain an intracrine enzyme machinery potentially able to synthesize the cell's own supply of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) pro-hormone produced in the adrenal cortex in the reticular zone, which is unique to primates. Indeed, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase(More)
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been intensely studied for the purpose of developing solutions for clinical tissue engineering. Autologous MSCs can potentially be used to replace tissue defects, but the procedure also carries risks such as immunization and xenogeneic infection. Replacement of the commonly used fetal calf serum(More)
To date, conventional and/or novel histamine receptors (HRs) have not been investigated in mouse skeletal myogenesis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the HR‑subtypes in skeletal myogenesis. The myogenesis of C2C12 skeletal myoblasts was evaluated using desmin, myogenin and myosin heavy chain (Myh) as early, intermediate and late(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Primary and dynamically maintained periprosthetic bone formation is essential for osseointegration of hip implants to host bone. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a role in osteoinductive bone formation. We hypothesized that there is an increased local synthesis of BMPs in the synovial membrane-like interface around aseptically(More)
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