Taroh Kinoshita

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Tuberculosis remains a fatal disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which contains various unique components that affect the host immune system. Trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM; also called cord factor) is a mycobacterial cell wall glycolipid that is the most studied immunostimulatory component of M. tuberculosis. Despite five decades of research on(More)
The pathway for glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis consists of at least 10 reaction steps. Many of the genes encoding the enzymes and regulators involved in this pathway have been recently cloned and their products characterised. These studies have revealed the common and also different characteristics of glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol(More)
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins is a conserved post-translational modification in eukaryotes. GPI is synthesized and transferred to proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. GPI-anchored proteins are then transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane through the Golgi apparatus. GPI-anchor functions as a sorting(More)
The inositol moiety of mammalian glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is acylated at an early step in GPI biosynthesis. The inositol acylation is essential for the generation of mature GPI capable of attachment to proteins. However, the acyl group is usually absent from GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on the cell surface due to inositol deacylation that(More)
The organelles within secretory and endocytotic pathways in mammalian cells have acidified lumens, and regulation of their acidic pH is critical for the trafficking, processing and glycosylation of cargo proteins and lipids, as well as the morphological integrity of the organelles. How organelle lumen acidification is regulated, and how luminal pH elevation(More)
Many eukaryotic proteins are attached to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. How GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are trafficked from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface is poorly understood, but the GPI moiety has been postulated to function as a signal for sorting and transport. Here, we established mutant cells(More)
Phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) are a major class of glycolipids in all mycobacteria. AcPIM2, a dimannosyl PIM, is both an end product and a precursor for polar PIMs, such as hexamannosyl PIM (AcPIM6) and the major cell wall lipoglycan, lipoarabinomannan (LAM). The mannosyltransferases that convert AcPIM2 to AcPIM6 or LAM are dependent on(More)
Whereas most of the cellular phosphatidylinositol (PI) contain unsaturated fatty chains and are excluded from rafts, GPI-anchored proteins (APs) unusually contain two saturated fatty chains in their PI moiety, and they are typically found within lipid rafts. However, the origin of the saturated chains and whether they are essential for raft association are(More)
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins is a posttranslational modification occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). After GPI attachment, proteins are transported by coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles from the ER. Because GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are localized in the lumen, they cannot interact with cytosolic COPII(More)