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Sleep is required to maintain physiological functions, including memory, and is regulated by monoamines across species. Enhancement of dopamine signals by a mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) decreases sleep, but the underlying dopamine circuit responsible for this remains unknown. We found that the D1 dopamine receptor (DA1) in the dorsal(More)
We have analyzed the dynamics of the chaperonin (GroEL)-cochaperonin (GroES) interaction at the single-molecule level. In the presence of ATP and non-native protein, binding of GroES to the immobilized GroEL occurred at a rate that is consistent with bulk kinetics measurements. However, the release of GroES from GroEL occurred after a lag period ((More)
Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter(More)
This paper is to study the participation of cathepsin in ischemic neuronal death of the monkey hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) 1 sector and also to clarify whether its selective inhibitor epoxysuccinyl peptides such as CA-074 and E-64c can inhibit the neuronal death or not. In the preceding reports, we demonstrated mu-calpain activation and subsequent(More)
Nosocomial infection (i.e. infection in healthcare facilities) raises a serious public health problem, as implied by the existence of pathogens characteristic to healthcare facilities such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and hospital-mediated outbreaks of influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome. For general communities, epidemic(More)
We analyzed the effects of dopamine signaling on the temporal organization of rest and activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Locomotor behaviors were recorded using a video-monitoring system, and the amounts of movements were quantified by using an image processing program. We, first, confirmed that rest bout durations followed long-tailed (i.e., power-law)(More)
Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are(More)
Sleep is a unique physiological state, which is behaviorally defined, and is broadly conserved across species from mammals to invertebrates such as insects. Because of the experimental accessibility provided by various novel animal models including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, there have been significant advances in the understanding of sleep.(More)
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster is an established model used for aging and longevity studies and more recently for sleep studies. Mammals and Drosophila share various physiological, pathological, pharmacological and genetic similarities in these processes. In particular, sleep is essential for survival in both species and both have age-associated(More)
To elucidate the exact role of the C-terminal region of GroEL in its functional cycle, the C-terminal 20-amino acid truncated mutant of GroEL was constructed. The steady-state ATPase rate and duration of GroES binding showed that the functional cycle of the truncated GroEL is extended by approximately 2 s in comparison with that of the wild type, without(More)