Taro Murakami

Learn More
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids that can be oxidized in skeletal muscle. It is known that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is attributed to activation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, which catalyzes the second-step reaction of the BCAA(More)
BCAA catabolism in skeletal muscle is regulated by the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, located at the second step in the BCAA catabolic pathway. The activity of the BCKDH complex is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle. Almost all of BCKDH complex in skeletal muscle under normal and resting conditions is in an(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) promotes oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). BCAA catabolism is regulated by branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, which is regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of the E1alpha subunit at Ser293. BCKDH kinase is responsible for inactivation of the complex by phosphorylation.(More)
Significant evidence of the pharmacological and physiological effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has accumulated, attracting the interest of not only clinicians but also basic medical researchers. We summarize here the characteristic features of BCAA catabolism, focusing on the initial two enzymes in the pathway, branched-chain aminotransferase(More)
Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex catalyzes the committed step of the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The liver cirrhosis chemically induced in rats raised the activity of hepatic BCKDH complex and decreased plasma BCAA and branched-chain alpha-keto acid concentrations, suggesting that the BCAA requirement is(More)
Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, the enzyme catalyst for the second step of the BCAA catabolic pathway, plays a central role in the regulation of BCAA catabolism. The activity of the complex is regulated by a covalent modification cycle in which phosphorylation by BCKDH kinase inactivates and dephosphorylation by BCKDH(More)
We examined the effects of ingesting a non-sugar chocolate containing polydextrose and lactitol in place of sucrose and lactose on the concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin and triglyceride in humans. A regular chocolate was used as the control. A crossover study was employed, and the subjects each ingested 46 g of the control or non-sugar(More)
BCAA catabolism in skeletal muscle is regulated by the branched-chain a-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, located at the second step in the BCAA catabolic pathway. The activity of the BCKDH complex is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle. Almost all of BCKDH complex in skeletal muscle under normal and resting conditions is in an(More)
Determining the cellular and molecular recovery processes in inactivity - or unloading -induced atrophied muscles should improve rehabilitation strategies. We assessed the effects of stand-up exercise (SE) training on the recovery of atrophied skeletal muscles in male mice. Mice were trained to stand up and press an elevated lever in response to a(More)
Clofibrate promotes catabolism of branched-chain amino acids by increasing the activity of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase [BCKDH] complex. Depending upon the sex of the rats, nutritional state, and tissue being studied, clofibrate can affect BCKDH complex activity by three different mechanisms. First, by directly inhibiting BCKDH kinase(More)