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OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and types of dementia in centenarians and to examine whether the ApoE epsilon 4 allele has significant impact on the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the population. DESIGN Cross-sectional study and a 6-month prospective study. SETTING Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. PARTICIPANTS Forty-seven centenarians(More)
BACKGROUND N-methyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (MOR-14), an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, reduces the glycogenolytic rate by inhibiting the alpha-1,6-glucosidase of glycogen-debranching enzyme in the liver, in addition to possessing an antihyperglycemic action by blocking alpha-1,4-glucosidase in the intestine. Because the reduction of the glycogenolytic rate may be(More)
To evaluate the effect of pravastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, on sleep, the drug or a placebo was administered to 5 healthy adults for 16 days by the double-blind method. Pravastatin caused no changes in sleep parameters. This indicates that it had no effect on human sleep for the following possible reasons: Being hydrophilic, the drug does not(More)
To determine the annual incidence of fall-related injuries among community-dwelling elderly people with dementia and to identify the factors predicting those likely to sustain such injuries, we conducted a cohort study with a one-year follow-up. As predicting factors, we paid particular attention to behavioural problems and difficulties in helping with(More)
The effects of lithium and carbamazepine on GABAA and GABAB receptors were examined. The binding of [3H]muscimol and [3H](-)-baclofen to synaptic membranes from rat brain was used to label GABAA and GABAB receptors, respectively. Neither the [3H]muscimol nor the [3H](-)-baclofen binding site was displaced by lithium or carbamazepine even at a concentration(More)
OBJECTIVE Periodontal ligament cells (PDLs) produce prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in response to orthodontic force. PGE(2) is a potent osteoclast-inducing factor that induces the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Some studies reported that PDLs express RANKL in response to mechanical stress, whereas another study reported that they do(More)
Tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for the development of several cancers, osteoporosis, and inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. Nicotine is one of the major components of tobacco. In previous study, we showed that nicotine inhibits mineralized nodule formation by osteoblasts, and the culture medium from osteoblasts containing nicotine and(More)
Some infarcted myocytes undergo caspase-dependent DNA fragmentation, but serine protease-dependent DNA fragmentation may also be involved. There is controversy regarding whether caspase inhibitors can reduce infarct size, so the present study investigated whether serine protease inhibitor can reduce the DNA fragmentation of infarcted myocytes and whether(More)
Experimental evidence has clarified distant organ dysfunctions induced by AKI. Crosstalk between the kidney and heart, which has been recognized recently as cardiorenal syndrome, appears to have an important role in clinical settings, but the mechanisms by which AKI causes cardiac injury remain poorly understood. Both the kidney and heart are highly(More)
We have been studying control mechanisms of gene expression in early embryogenesis in a South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis, especially during the period of midblastula transition (MBT), or the transition from the phase of active cell division (cleavage stage) to the phase of extensive morphogenesis (post-blastular stages). We first found that(More)