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Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 has been causing large outbreaks in Japan. Yet, the case fatality rate (CFR) remains low and only 85 deaths have been confirmed as of December 17, 2009. Surveillance data was analyzed to define epidemiological characteristics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Japan. It was shown that most of the reported influenza-like illness cases and(More)
Better preparedness for an influenza pandemic mitigates its impact. Many countries have started developing and implementing national influenza pandemic preparedness plans. However, the level of preparedness varies among countries. Developing countries encounter unique and difficult issues and challenges in preparing for a pandemic. Deaths attributable to an(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza A virus infects not only humans, but also other species including avian and swine. If a novel influenza A subtype acquires the ability to spread between humans efficiently, it could cause the next pandemic. Therefore it is necessary to understand the evolutionary processes of influenza A viruses in various hosts in order to gain better(More)
Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged(More)
Human rhinovirus (HRV) C was recently identified as the third species of HRV using a molecular technique. Infections caused by previously identified HRVs (A and B) are thought to be limited to the respiratory tract; however, pathogenesis of HRVC is still largely unknown. A total of 816 nasopharyngeal swabs from hospitalized children with severe respiratory(More)
OBJECTIVES Although the public health significance of influenza in regions with a temperate climate has been widely recognized, information on influenza burden in tropical countries, including the Philippines, remains limited. We aimed to estimate influenza incidence rates for both outpatients and inpatients then characterized their demographic features. (More)
BACKGROUND Knowledge of how influenza viruses spread in a community is important for planning and implementation of effective interventions, including social distancing measures. Households and schools are implicated as the major sites for influenza virus transmission. However, the overall picture of community transmission is not well defined during actual(More)
This study aimed to determine the role of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance conducted on Leyte Island, the Philippines, including involvement of other respiratory viruses, from 2010 to 2013. ILI surveillance was conducted from January 2010 to March 2013 with 3 sentinel sites located in Tacloban city, Palo and Tanauan of Leyte Island. ILI was defined(More)
Enterovirus 68 (EV68) infection occasionally manifests with fatal outcomes. However, detection of EV68 in serum and its clinical outcomes are yet to be determined. In this study, we retrospectively tested stored serum samples collected from pediatric pneumonia patients whose nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for EV68. Of total 28 nasopharyngeal(More)
Analyzing the evolutionary pattern of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain in different regions is important for understanding its diversification. We therefore conducted this study to elucidate the genetic variability and molecular evolution of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strains that circulated during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons in Sendai,(More)