Tarja Knuuttila

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Modellers of biological, ecological, and environmental systems cannot take for granted the maxim 'simple means general means good'. We argue here that viewing simple models as the main way to achieve generality may be an obstacle to the progress of ecological research. We show how complex models can be both desirable and general, and how simple and complex(More)
This study seeks to situate the philosophical discussion on models and scientific representation within the larger context of questioning representation that is taking place in other fields, especially in science and technology studies. It addresses four related questions: (i) What kinds of different reactions there have been to the puzzle of(More)
Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a(More)
We develop a framework for discussing the degree of conceptual autonomy of natural and artificial agents. We claim that aspects related to learning and communication necessitate adaptive agents that are partially autonomous. We demonstrate how partial conceptual autonomy can be obtained through a self-organization process. The input for the agents consists(More)
Using Corbino samples we have observed oscillatory dc conductance in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system when it is subjected to crossed microwave and magnetic fields. At the strongest of the oscillation minima the conductance is found to be vanishingly small, indicating a macroscopic insulating state associated with this minimum. With(More)
The picture of synthetic biology as a kind of engineering science has largely created the public understanding of this novel field, covering both its promises and risks. In this paper, we will argue that the actual situation is more nuanced and complex. Synthetic biology is a highly interdisciplinary field of research located at the interface of physics,(More)
Sensitive SQUID-NMR measurements were used to study the mutual interactions in the highly polarized nuclear-spin system of rhodium metal. The dipolar coupling gives rise to a weak double-spin-flip resonance. The observed frequency shifts allow deducing separately the dipolarlike contribution and the isotropic exchange term. For the first time, such(More)
In this article we approach neural networks as computational templates that travel across various sciences. Traditionally, it has been thought that models are primarily models of some target systems: they are assumed to represent partially or completely their target systems. We argue, instead, that many computational models cannot easily be conceived of in(More)
Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose Tc and Bc are exceptionally low. Because Bc ø Bloc and the short-range spin-spin interaction is unchanged, the nuclear spin entropy was fully sustained across the(More)