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Cancer immunoresistance and immune escape may play important roles in tumor progression and pose obstacles for immunotherapy. Expression of the immunosuppressive protein B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1), also known as programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), is increased in many pathological conditions, including cancer. Here we show that expression of the gene encoding(More)
Fifty-five patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system were studied to define the clinical and pathologic features of this newly described neoplasm. The lesion occurred primarily in children younger than 2 (mean age at diagnosis, 17 months). The neoplasms were located in the posterior fossa (36 patients) and the(More)
BACKGROUND The prediction of clinical behavior, response to therapy, and outcome of infiltrative glioma is challenging. On the basis of previous studies of tumor biology, we defined five glioma molecular groups with the use of three alterations: mutations in the TERT promoter, mutations in IDH, and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q(More)
PURPOSE The prognostic role of extent of resection (EOR) of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) is a major controversy. We designed a retrospective study to assess the influence of EOR on long-term outcomes of LGGs. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study population (N = 216) included adults undergoing initial resection of hemispheric LGG. Region-of-interest analysis was(More)
Among tumors classified as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Department of Pathology files, we identified 18 cases with a distinctive monomorphous pilomyxoid histological pattern and a higher recurrence rate than that of PA with classical histological features (classical PA). The majority of the tumors occurred in infants and young(More)
Epidemiologists in the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) have prioritized areas for further research. Although many risk factors have been examined over the past several decades, there are few consistent findings, possibly because of small sample sizes in individual studies and differences between studies in patients, tumor types, and methods of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Plaque morphologic features have been suggested as a complement to luminal narrowing measurements for assessing the risk of stroke associated with carotid atherosclerotic disease, giving rise to the concept of "vulnerable plaque." The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of multidetector-row CT angiography (CTA) to assess(More)
CONTEXT Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) of the central nervous system are rare neoplasms that usually present as dura-based masses and clinically resemble meningiomas. Histologically, they can be similar to fibrous meningioma or hemangiopericytoma (HPC). In particular, densely cellular regions seen in some SFTs can be indistinguishable from HPC. Little is(More)
The causes of glioblastoma and other gliomas remain obscure. To discover new candidate genes influencing glioma susceptibility, we conducted a principal component-adjusted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 275,895 autosomal variants among 692 adult high-grade glioma cases (622 from the San Francisco Adult Glioma Study (AGS) and 70 from the Cancer(More)
BACKGROUND The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib (also known as Tarceva or OSI-774) has shown promising response rates in malignant gliomas. We investigated the association between expression of EGFR and downstream signaling components and the response of malignant gliomas to erlotinib in a phase I trial of(More)