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Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we have evaluated the anatomical location of the motor hand area. The segment of the precentral gyrus that most often contained motor hand function was a knob-like structure, that is shaped like an omega or epsilon in the axial plane and like a hook in the sagittal plane. On the cortical surface of cadaver(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal increases (activations) and BOLD signal decreases ("deactivations") were compared in six healthy volunteers during galvanic vestibular (mastoid) and galvanic cutaneous (neck) stimulation in order to differentiate vestibular from ocular motor and nociceptive functions. By(More)
Cerebral activation was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during galvanic stimulation of the mastoid in 6 normal volunteers. Cutaneous stimulation at the neck C4-5 level served as a control. During mastoid stimulation, bilateral vestibular activation occurred in the posterior insula (parietoinsular vestibular cortex, PIVC), the(More)
OBJECTIVE Brain microbleeds on gradient-recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted MRI may be a useful biomarker for bleeding-prone small vessel diseases, with potential relevance for diagnosis, prognosis (especially for antithrombotic-related bleeding risk), and understanding mechanisms of symptoms, including cognitive impairment. To address these questions, it is(More)
In recent years, criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have changed, mainly due to the incorporation of new MRI criteria. While the new criteria are a logical step forward, they are complex and-not surprisingly-a good working knowledge of them is not always evident among neurologists and neuroradiologists. In some circumstances, several MRI(More)
For deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), it would be an advantage if the STN could be visualized with fast acquisition of MR images, allowing direct and individual targeting. We present a protocol for T2-weighted, nonvolumetric fast-acquisition MRI, implemented at 8 centers in 6 countries. Acquisition time varied between 3 min 5 s(More)
Small-field optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) was performed in seven healthy volunteers in order to analyze the activation and deactivation patterns of visual motion, ocular motor, and multisensory vestibular cortex areas by means of fMRI during coherent visual motion stimulation. BOLD signal decreases (deactivations) were found in the first and second long(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The insula is important for gustatory sensation, motor speech control, vestibular function, and sympathetic control of cardiovascular tone. The purpose of this study was to test two hypotheses: 1) gross anatomic study of the insula will disclose reproducible patterns of insular structure, and 2) analysis of MR appearance will enable(More)
BACKGROUND In a 2-year, placebo-controlled trial (the Natalizumab Safety and Efficacy in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis [AFFIRM] study), involving 942 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), natalizumab significantly reduced the relapse rate by 68% and progression of sustained disability by 42% vs placebo. We report the effect of(More)
Unfixed and fixed postmortem multiple sclerosis (MS) brain is being used to probe pathology underlying quantitative MR (qMR) changes. Effects of fixation on qMR indices in MS brain are unknown. In 15 postmortem MS brain slices T(1), T(2), MT ratio (MTR), macromolecular proton fraction (f(B)), fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean, axial, and radial(More)