Tarek M. El-Achkar

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are now recognized as the major receptors for microbial pathogens on cells of the innate immune system. Recently, TLRs were also identified in many organs including the kidney. However, the cellular distribution and role of these renal TLRs remain largely unknown. In this paper, we investigated the expression of TLR4 in a cecal(More)
Gram-negative sepsis carries high morbidity and mortality, especially when complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI). The mechanisms of AKI in sepsis remain poorly understood. Here we used intravital two-photon fluorescence microscopy to investigate the possibility of direct interactions between filtered endotoxin and tubular cells as a possible mechanism of(More)
The effect of TNF-α blockade on the risk of cardiovascular outcomes and long-term survival in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not known. We assembled a cohort of 20,811 (75,329 person-years) U.S. veterans who were diagnosed with RA between October 1998 and September 2005, and who were treated with a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD).(More)
Acute renal failure is a grave complication of systemic gram-negative sepsis. The pathophysiological mechanisms of sepsis leading to kidney injury result in part from systemic inflammatory and haemodynamic alterations. These are triggered by the interaction of endotoxin with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on cells of the immune system. Recently, TLR4 and other(More)
Correct folding of a nascent polypeptide in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into a three-dimensional conformation is a crucial step in the stability, intracellular trafficking, and targeting to the final destination of a protein. By transiently and stably expressing human-relevant mutants of Tamm-Horsfall protein in polarized Madin-Darby canine(More)
BACKGROUND The Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP 2.0) cross-sectional, community-based study, targeted individuals at increased risk for kidney disease and measured blood glucose, creatinine, and hemoglobin. METHODS KEEP 2.0 screening data were used to determine the prevalence of anemia by level of kidney function and diabetes status. Estimated(More)
BACKGROUND The optimal timing of nephrology consultation in patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. STUDY DESIGN Prospective controlled nonrandomized intervention study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS We screened daily serum creatinine (SCr) levels of 4,296 patients admitted to the St. Louis Veterans Affairs Medical Center between(More)
The effect of rate of decline of kidney function on risk for death is not well understood. Using the Department of Veterans Affairs national databases, we retrospectively studied a cohort of 4171 patients who had rheumatoid arthritis and early stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD; estimated GFR 45 to 60 ml/min) and followed them longitudinally to(More)
Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is a glycoprotein with unclear functions expressed exclusively in thick ascending limbs (TAL) of the kidney. Its role in ischemic acute kidney injury is uncertain, with previous data suggesting a possible negative effect by enhancing cast formation and promoting inflammation. Using a recently characterized THP knockout mouse(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is an inducible enzyme responsible for the formation of inflammatory prostanoids such as prostaglandins and thromboxane. Its role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory states like sepsis is increasingly recognized. Recently, we demonstrated that sepsis upregulates the endotoxin receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in rat kidney.(More)