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Alcohol policies have potentially far-reaching impacts on risky sexual behavior, prenatal health behaviors, and subsequent outcomes for infants. After finding initial evidence in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that changes in the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) are related to prenatal drinking, we examine whether the drinking age(More)
This paper investigates the relationship between metropolitan area growth, inequality, and segregation by income across neighborhoods. I propose a simple model based on the notion that rising income inequality creates housing market pressure leading to residential segregation by income. However, because different income groups live in different types of(More)
“Chilling effects” are a popular explanation for low program take-up rates among immigrants, but the effects of an icy policy climate are inherently hard to measure. This paper finds robust evidence that heightened Federal immigration enforcement reduces Medicaid participation among children of non-citizens, even when children are themselves citizens. The(More)
This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A ten percent higher reference group(More)
U.S. metropolitan neighborhoods have become increasingly segregated by income over the past thirty years. The metropolitan areas with the largest rises in income segregation include a number of distressed cities in industrial decline, as well as a subset of rapidly growing metropolitan areas. I propose a simple model based on the notion that rising income(More)
A fundamental question in development and growth is whether and how fast fertility responds to reductions in child mortality risk. I provide quasi-experimental evidence on this question from the expansion of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in Zambia. My results suggest that the local introduction of PMTCT reduced pregnancy rates by(More)
There has been substantial interest in whether welfare reform affected the ability of women, particularly single mothers, to obtain health insurance coverage. We examine the assumptions used in most of the existing literature on welfare reform and health insurance for women—that either married mothers or single women without children can act as a valid(More)