Tara Ramachandran

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Understanding one's own and other individual's emotional states is essential for maintaining emotional equilibrium and strong social bonds. Although the neural substrates supporting ref lection upon one's own feelings have been investigated, no studies have directly examined attributions about the internal emotional states of others to determine whether(More)
Although individual differences in fear and anxiety modulate the pain response and may even cause more suffering than the initiating physical stimulus, little is known about the neural systems mediating this relationship. The present study provided the first examination of the neural correlates of individual differences in the tendency to (1) feel anxious(More)
Humans possess a remarkable capacity to understand the suffering of others. Cognitive neuroscience theories of empathy suggest that this capacity is supported by 'shared representations' of self and other. Consistent with this notion, a number of studies have found that perceiving others in pain and experiencing pain oneself recruit overlapping neural(More)
Since the clinical significance of CT abnormalities found in bipolar patients remains obscure, we studied 26 DSM-III bipolar patients who had specific CT abnormalities (third ventricle enlargement, and hyperdensity of the caudate, thalamus, anterior frontal white matter, and right temporal lobe) on numerous parameters such as EEG, the Halstead-Reitan(More)
A comprehensive quantitative computed tomography (CT) study of the diencephalic region of 23 chronic schizophrenic patients and 23 normal controls was done. The third ventricle width, the Sylvian fissure widths, and the densities of the head of the caudate nucleus, thalamic nucleus, and medial temporal lobe were measured. In the schizophrenic patients,(More)
A 72-year-old hypertensive man had focal seizures and mild memory loss. At autopsy, there were many lacunar infarcts, particularly in the neostriatum. Rust-brown discoloration and spheroid formation within the globus pallidus and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra resembled Hallervorden-Spatz disease, in which more detailed analysis of the striatum may(More)
Simple, objective, linear, and density measures were used to evaluate by computed tomography (CT) the cerebellum-fourth ventricular region of 23 chronic schizophrenic patients and 23 normal controls. Our data suggest that a subgroup of chronic schizophrenic patients have cerebellar atrophy associated with a strong but nonsignificant trend toward increased(More)
Twenty-three chronic schizophrenic patients and 23 controls, all males between 20 and 40 years of age, were evaluated by CT scan. The lateral, third and fourth ventricles, the Sylvian fissures, and the largest sulcus from each of the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes, were measured in order to determine whether the previously reported ventriculomegaly(More)
Based on recent computed tomography (CT) studies that have suggested the presence of distinct structural abnormalities in the brains of chronic schizophrenics, the authors evaluated 23 chronic schizophrenics and 23 controls by CT, using linear and area lateral ventricular measures, sulcal and Sylvian fissure widths and cerebral density measures. Technical(More)
There are numerous reports of lateral cerebral ventricle enlargement on computed tomography (CT) in schizophrenics, but the significance and its relationship to traditional notions of organicity remain unclear. Therefore we studied a subgroup of chronic schizophrenics who had lateral ventriculomegaly (and also cortical hyperdensity) on a battery of relevant(More)