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Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II) is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr-directed protein kinase that is expressed from a family of four genes (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) in mammalian cells. We have documented the three-dimensional structures and the biophysical and enzymatic properties of the four gene products. Biophysical analyses showed(More)
The interaction of calmodulin with its target proteins is known to affect the kinetics and affinity of Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin. Based on thermodynamic principles, proteins that bind to Ca(2+)-calmodulin should increase the affinity of calmodulin for Ca(2+), while proteins that bind to apo-calmodulin should decrease its affinity for Ca(2+). We(More)
IQ motifs are found in diverse families of calmodulin (CaM)-binding proteins. Some of these, like PEP-19 and RC3, are highly abundant in neuronal tissues, but being devoid of catalytic activity, their biological roles are not understood. We hypothesized that these IQ motif proteins might have unique effects on the Ca2+ binding properties of CaM, since they(More)
The small IQ motif proteins PEP-19 (62 amino acids) and RC3 (78 amino acids) greatly accelerate the rates of Ca(2+) binding to sites III and IV in the C-domain of calmodulin (CaM). We show here that PEP-19 decreases the degree of cooperativity of Ca(2+) binding to sites III and IV, and we present a model showing that this could increase Ca(2+) binding rate(More)
Understanding the principles of calmodulin (CaM) activation of target enzymes will help delineate how this seemingly simple molecule can play such a complex role in transducing Ca (2+)-signals to a variety of downstream pathways. In the work reported here, we use biochemical and biophysical tools and a panel of CaM constructs to examine the lobe specific(More)
We developed a new Monte Carlo simulator that can incorporate anomalous diffusion and chemical kinetics of intracellular signaling molecules in the dendritic spine. The simulator is based on two well-established Monte Carlo approaches, namely the Kopelman algorithm and the Kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm. This paper describes the basic features of the(More)
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