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Stress increases addictive behaviors and is a common cause of relapse. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a key role in the modulation of drug taking by stress. However, the mechanism by which CRF modulates neuronal activity in circuits involved in drug addiction is poorly understood. Here we show that CRF induces a potentiation of NMDAR(More)
Manganese chloride (Mn) was dissolved in the drinking water (0, 2, or 10 mg/ml) of dams and their litters from conception until postnatal day (PND) 30. Parturition was uneventful in the Mn-exposed rats and no physical abnormalities were observed. The rats exposed to 10 mg/ml Mn showed a 2.5-fold increase in cortical Mn levels. Their weight gain was(More)
Hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) is a critical neurotransmitter for the maintenance of wakefulness and has been implicated in several other functions, including energy metabolism and reward. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein was linked to the Hcrt promoter, we investigated GABAergic control of(More)
Stress-induced analgesia (SIA) is a key component of the defensive behavioral "fight-or-flight" response. Although the neural substrates of SIA are incompletely understood, previous studies have implicated the hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptidergic systems in the regulation of SIA. Using immunohistochemistry in brain tissue(More)
BACKGROUND The physiological mechanisms underlying the behavioral and cognitive effects of ethanol are not fully understood. However, there is now compelling evidence that ethanol acts, at least in part, by modulating the function of a small group of proteins that mediate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. For example, intoxicating(More)
The nucleus accumbens, a brain region involved in motivation, attention, and reward, receives substantial glutamatergic innervation from many limbic structures. This excitatory glutamatergic input plays an integral role in both normal and pathophysiological states. Despite the importance of glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens, the specific(More)
Many studies have demonstrated that ethanol reduces glutamatergic synaptic transmission primarily by inhibiting the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor. In contrast, the other two subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptor (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid and kainate) have generally been shown to be insensitive to(More)
Inhibitory synaptic transmission plays an important role in regulating the activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The kainate (KA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptor has been shown to potently modulate GABAergic synaptic transmission in several brain regions. Although KA receptor subunits are expressed in the NAcc, KA(More)
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