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PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between phoria and the dynamics of vergence eye movements as described by the ratio of convergence average peak velocity to divergence average peak velocity, termed the vergence peak velocity ratio. METHODS Phoria and vergence step responses were recorded. Three measures of phoria were(More)
Conflicting theories exist describing how symmetrical vergence responses, the inward or outward turning of the eyes, are mediated. Classical theories describe vergence control as mediated by visual feedback. Extensive experimental evidence indicates that two distinct control components comprise the vergence response, and a recent theory supports the concept(More)
PURPOSE To assess the potential peak velocity asymmetry between the left-eye and right-eye movement responses stimulated by symmetrical vergence steps in those with normal binocular vision and those with convergence insufficiency (CI) before and after vergence training. This study also evaluated whether vergence training influenced convergence peak velocity(More)
Prediction is an important component of the neural strategy used to guide the human visuomotor system. When applicable, prediction significantly enhances the performance of oculomotor control. Previous research has shown that the use of prediction will decrease the latency of movement onset as seen in saccadic as well as disparity convergent eye movements.(More)
PURPOSE This research quantified clinical measurements and functional neural changes associated with vision therapy in subjects with convergence insufficiency (CI). METHODS Convergence and divergence 4° step responses were compared between 13 control adult subjects with normal binocular vision and four CI adult subjects. All CI subjects participated in 18(More)
Repetitive stimulation of the disparity vergence system to large convergent step stimuli has been shown to increase the dynamics of subsequent responses to smaller step stimuli. Here we show that decreases in the dynamics of both disparity convergence and divergence eye movements can be induced using a frequently occurring small amplitude conditioning(More)
If two targets are carefully aligned, the required eye movement will be symmetrical with the two eyes turning equally inward or outward: a pure vergence movement. Yet almost all responses contain saccades, a rapid tandem movement of the eyes. When saccades occur, they must either be producing an error in the desired symmetrical response or correcting an(More)
PURPOSE Eye movement research has traditionally studied solely saccade and/or vergence eye movements by isolating these systems within a laboratory setting. While the neural correlates of saccadic eye movements are established, few studies have quantified the functional activity of vergence eye movements using fMRI. This study mapped the neural substrates(More)
Eye movement studies have provided a strong foundation forming an understanding of how the brain acquires visual information in both the normal and dysfunctional brain.(1) However, development of a platform to stimulate and store eye movements can require substantial programming, time and costs. Many systems do not offer the flexibility to program numerous(More)
PURPOSE Cortical and subcortical functional activity stimulated via saccade and vergence eye movements were investigated to examine the similarities and differences between networks and regions of interest (ROIs). METHODS Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals from stimulus-induced functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) experiments were(More)