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Conflicting theories exist describing how symmetrical vergence responses, the inward or outward turning of the eyes, are mediated. Classical theories describe vergence control as mediated by visual feedback. Extensive experimental evidence indicates that two distinct control components comprise the vergence response, and a recent theory supports the concept(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between phoria and the dynamics of vergence eye movements as described by the ratio of convergence average peak velocity to divergence average peak velocity, termed the vergence peak velocity ratio. METHODS Phoria and vergence step responses were recorded. Three measures of phoria were(More)
Prediction is an important component of the neural strategy used to guide the human visuomotor system. When applicable, prediction significantly enhances the performance of oculomotor control. Previous research has shown that the use of prediction will decrease the latency of movement onset as seen in saccadic as well as disparity convergent eye movements.(More)
PURPOSE This research quantified clinical measurements and functional neural changes associated with vision therapy in subjects with convergence insufficiency (CI). METHODS Convergence and divergence 4° step responses were compared between 13 control adult subjects with normal binocular vision and four CI adult subjects. All CI subjects participated in 18(More)
PURPOSE To assess the potential peak velocity asymmetry between the left-eye and right-eye movement responses stimulated by symmetrical vergence steps in those with normal binocular vision and those with convergence insufficiency (CI) before and after vergence training. This study also evaluated whether vergence training influenced convergence peak velocity(More)
1 Springtails (Hexapoda, Collembola) are usually associated with moist micro-habitats. However, some species show adaptations to ecosystems subjected to periodic desiccation. This study examined the effects of short-term drought conditions upon epigeal Collembola collected from arable ®elds. 2 An emergence trap was used in the laboratory to investigate(More)
Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease. The aim of the present study was to explore the relation of visfatin with underlying histopathological changes of NAFLD patients. Subjects A population of 55 NAFLD patients was analyzed in a cross-sectional study. A liver biopsy was realized. Weight, basal glucose, insulin,(More)
Repetitive stimulation of the disparity vergence system to large convergent step stimuli has been shown to increase the dynamics of subsequent responses to smaller step stimuli. Here we show that decreases in the dynamics of both disparity convergence and divergence eye movements can be induced using a frequently occurring small amplitude conditioning(More)
If two targets are carefully aligned, the required eye movement will be symmetrical with the two eyes turning equally inward or outward: a pure vergence movement. Yet almost all responses contain saccades, a rapid tandem movement of the eyes. When saccades occur, they must either be producing an error in the desired symmetrical response or correcting an(More)
Description: The hardware and instrumentation needed to measure variables from different physiological systems. Electrodes, sensors and transducers. Bioelectric amplifiers. Hardware for measurement of the ECG, EEG, EMG, respiratory system, nervous system. Clinical laboratory instruments. Electrical safety. Computers in biomedical instrumentation. Students(More)