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BACKGROUND Complete surgical removal of the prostate, radical prostatectomy, is the most frequently used treatment option for men with localised prostate cancer. The use of laparoscopic (keyhole) and robot-assisted surgery has improved operative safety but the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these options remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE(More)
BACKGROUND Prophylactic aspirin has been considered to be beneficial in reducing the risks of heart disease and cancer. However, potential benefits must be balanced against the possible harm from side effects, such as bleeding and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. It is particularly important to know the risk of side effects when aspirin is used as primary(More)
BACKGROUND Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely linked with obesity and the prevalence of NAFLD is about 17% to 33% in the Western world. There is a strong association of NAFLD with insulin resistance and, hence, insulin sensitisers have been tried. This systematic review examined the clinical effectiveness of insulin sensitisers in patients(More)
BACKGROUND 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapy used in colorectal, head and neck (H&N) and other cancers. Dose adjustment is based on body surface area (BSA) but wide variations occur. Pharmacokinetic (PK) dosing is suggested to bring plasma levels into the therapeutic range to promote fewer side effects and better patient outcomes. We investigated the(More)
BACKGROUND Aspirin has been recommended for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, but overall benefits are unclear. We aimed to use novel methods to re-evaluate the balance of benefits and harms of aspirin using evidence from randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. METHODS AND FINDINGS Data sources(More)
PURPOSE What is perceived to be a disability is both culturally specific and related to levels of development and modernity. This paper explores knowledge and attitudes towards people with disabilities among rural women in Nepal, one of the poorer countries in South Asia. METHOD Four hundred and twelve married women of reproductive age (aged 15-49 years),(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) [(Zopf 1883) Lehmann and Neumann 1896], is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Nearly one-third of the world's population is infected with MTB; TB has an annual incidence of 9 million new cases and each year causes 2 million deaths worldwide. OBJECTIVES To investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND Although enteral nutrition has been shown to be a viable treatment option for the management of active Crohn's disease (CD), the evidence regarding its clinical benefits compared with standard treatments (e.g. steroids) for maintaining remission in patients with CD has been inconsistent. If enteral nutrition was to be effective, the use of drugs(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying which patients with non-specific low back pain are likely to gain the greatest benefit from different treatments is an important research priority. Few studies are large enough to produce data on sub-group effects from different treatments. Data from existing large studies may help identify potential moderators to use in future(More)
BACKGROUND Advanced heart failure (HF) is a debilitating condition for which heart transplant (HT) offers the best treatment option. However, the supply of donor hearts is diminishing and demand greatly exceeds supply. Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are surgically implanted pumps used as an alternative to transplant (ATT) or as a bridge to transplant(More)