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This week an international panel announces a list of 14 Grand Challenges in Global Health, and scientists throughout the world will be invited to submit grant proposals to pursue them with funds provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. We describe the characteristics of these challenges and the process by which they were formulated and selected(More)
Gross inequities in disease burden between developed and developing countries are now the subject of intense global attention. Public and private donors have marshaled resources and created organizational structures to accelerate the development of new health products and to procure and distribute drugs and vaccines for the poor. Despite these encouraging(More)
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent, nonheme iron enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-Phe to L-Tyr in the rate-limiting step of phenylalanine catabolism. This reaction is tightly coupled in the wild-type enzyme to oxidation of the tetrahydropterin cofactor. Dysfunction of PAH activity in humans leads to the disease(More)
This paper highlights the growing capacity for innovation in some developing countries. To maximize the potential of this phenomenon for global health, countries and donors need to link two disparate schools of thought: (1) a search for technological solutions exemplified by global public-private product development partnerships, and (2) a focus on systemic(More)
The Global Alliance for Tuberculosis Drug Development (TB Alliance) aims to stop the spread of tuberculosis by developing new, faster-acting, and affordable tuberculosis drugs. The TB Alliance is a public-private partnership, a not-for-profit enterprise, that draws upon the resources of both private and public institutions to help address this urgent health(More)
BACKGROUND: The benefits of scientific medicine have eluded millions in developing countries and the genomics revolution threatens to increase health inequities between North and South. India, as a developing yet also industrialized country, is uniquely positioned to pioneer science policy innovations to narrow the genomics divide. Recognizing this, the(More)
Policy Forum D evelopment experts and policy makers agree that investment in science and technology is important for economic growth and development. The 2001 United Nations (UN) Development Programme report, Making New Technologies Work for Human Development, identifi ed technical progress as the largest factor in reducing mortality rates and improving(More)
BACKGROUND: While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean(More)
The growing health disparities between the developing and the developed world call for urgent action from the scientific community. Science and technology have in the past played a vital role in improving public health. Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other advances in the life sciences, the contribution of science to improve public(More)