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Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) support neuronal survival, differentiation, and even synaptic plasticity both during development and throughout the life of an organism. However, their precise roles in central synapse formation remain unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that excitatory synapse formation in Lymnaea stagnalis requires a source of extrinsic NTFs(More)
Respiratory behaviour relies critically upon sensory feedback from peripheral oxygen chemoreceptors. During environmental or systemic hypoxia, chemoreceptor input modulates respiratory central pattern generator activity to produce reflex-based increases in respiration and also shapes respiratory plasticity over longer timescales. The best-studied oxygen(More)
Since the evolution of aerobic metabolism, cellular requirements for molecular oxygen have been the major driver for the development of sophisticated mechanisms underlying both invertebrate and vertebrate respiratory behaviour. Among the most important characteristics of respiration is its adaptability, which allows animals to maintain oxygen homeostasis(More)
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