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We investigated the metabolism of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) in healthy subjects by determining its cold-induced and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and blood flow (perfusion) using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT). Second, we assessed gene expression in human BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT). Glucose(More)
Aims/hypothesis. The aim of the Diabetes Prevention Study is to assess the efficacy of an intensive diet-exercise programme in preventing or delaying Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, to evaluate the effects of the intervention programme on cardiovascular risk factors and to assess the(More)
Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, enhances peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Because the synergic action of insulin and exercise has been shown to be decreased in insulin resistance, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on muscle insulin responsiveness at rest and during exercise in(More)
To elucidate the role of adipose tissue glucose uptake in whole-body metabolism, sc and visceral adipose tissue glucose uptake and perfusion were measured in 10 nonobese and 10 age-matched obese men with positron emission tomography using [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and [(15)O]-labeled water during normoglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Whole-body and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The liver is inaccessible to organ balance measurements in humans. To validate [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the quantification of hepatic glucose uptake (HGU), we determined [(18)F]FDG modeling parameters, lumped constant (LC), and input functions (single arterial versus dual). METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE Inactive brown adipose tissue (BAT) may predispose to weight gain. This study was designed to measure metabolism in the BAT of obese humans, and to compare it to that in lean subjects. The impact of weight loss on BAT and the association of detectable BAT with various metabolic characteristics were also assessed. DESIGN AND METHODS Using(More)
PURPOSE The outcome of locally advanced head-and-neck cancer often is poor. An important determinant of treatment failure is tumor hypoxia arising from an inappropriate blood supply. Quantitation of the hypoxic fraction and blood flow in vivo may provide prognostic information and a means to target specifically tumor cells resistant to conventional(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies have demonstrated neuroprotective properties of S-ketamine, but its effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF), metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), and glucose metabolic rate (GMR) have not been comprehensively studied in humans. METHODS Positron emission tomography was used to quantify CBF and CMRO2 in eight healthy male volunteers(More)
CONTEXT Due to the restricted accessibility of pancreatic tissue in living man, direct analysis of the events preceding development of autoimmune changes in the pancreas has been problematic. In vivo imaging of insulitis might markedly increase understanding of the events and timing of the events that are necessary for the progression toward overt type 1(More)
UNLABELLED The glucose analog (18)F-FDG is commonly used to quantify regional glucose uptake in vivo. The aim of this study was to test whether the analysis of plasma (18)F-FDG kinetics could be used to estimate endogenous glucose production (EGP) and the total rate of appearance (Ra), total rate of disappearance (Rd), and the metabolic clearance rate (MCR)(More)