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Wind turbines in cold climates refer to sites that have either icing events or low temperatures outside the operational limits of standard wind turbines. International Energy Agency, IEA R&D Wind has started a new annex, Wind Energy in Cold Climates. This is an international collaboration on gathering and providing information about wind turbine icing and(More)
A.-C. 2006. Growth rate and wood properties of Norway spruce cutting clones on different sites. Silva Fennica 40(2): 247–256. The effect of growth rate on weight density and strength properties of three Norway spruce cutting clones growing on three different sites in different geographic locations was studied. The purpose was to follow variation in wood(More)
Acetone-soluble compounds found in different root zones and stumps of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), which were grown on either peatland or a mineral soil site, were studied. Samples from stumps and roots of different sizes and ages were collected a day after the trees were felled. The wood and bark of stumps and three zones of the roots were(More)
BACKGROUND The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of(More)
Phloem production and structural development were interlinked with seasonal variation in the primary and secondary metabolites of phloem. Novel microtechniques provided new perspectives on understanding phloem structure and chemistry. To gain new insights into phloem formation in Norway spruce (Picea abies), we monitored phloem cell production and seasonal(More)
A small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) catalyzing the CoA ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of antisense Populus tremuloides 4CL (Pt4CL1) to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver(More)
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