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The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir were introduced into clinical practice in various parts of the world between 1999 and 2002. In order to monitor the potential development of resistance, the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network was established to coordinate testing of clinical isolates collected through(More)
The increasing use of influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NIs) necessitates the development of reliable methods for assessing the NI susceptibility of clinical isolates. We evaluated three NA inhibition assays against a panel of five clinical isolates each of influenza virus A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains and four viruses with a defined resistance(More)
Toxoplasma gondii, a common brain-tropic parasite, is capable of infecting most nucleated cells, including astrocytes and neurons, in vitro. Yet, in vivo, Toxoplasma is primarily found in neurons. In vitro data showing that interferon-γ-stimulated astrocytes, but not neurons, clear intracellular parasites suggest that neurons alone are persistently infected(More)
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