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GSH, GSSG, vitamin E, and ascorbate were measured in 14-day cultures of chick astrocytes and neurons and compared with levels in the forebrains of chick embryos of comparable age. Activities of enzymes involved in GSH metabolism were also measured. These included gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, GSH synthetase, gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase,(More)
Interferon-beta (IFN-beta), an approved treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), produces only partial clinical responses. IFN-beta therapy has been limited by its short serum half-life and limited ability to cross the blood brain barrier. We have developed a means of delivering the IFN-beta gene both systemically and into the central nervous system (CNS)(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is protective in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, BDNF has a short half-life and its efficacy in the CNS when delivered peripherally is limited due to the blood-brain barrier. In the present study, bone marrow cells were used as vehicles to deliver the BDNF(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is neuroprotective in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, BDNF has a short half-life and its efficacy in the central nervous system (CNS), when delivered peripherally, is limited due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have developed a means of delivering BDNF(More)
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which includes a neurodegenerative component. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuroprotective agent which might be useful in preventing neurodegeneration but its application has been limited because the blood brain barrier restricts its access to the CNS. We have(More)
Transplantation of neural stem cells for replacing neurons after neurodegeneration requires that the transplanted stem cells accurately reestablish the lost neural circuits in order to restore function. Retinal ganglion cell axons project to visual centers of the brain forming circuits in precise topographic order. In chick, dorsal retinal neurons project(More)
CBL/57 strain db/db mice exhibit type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes. The affected mice are markedly hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic, and hypercholesterolemic, and their serum K+ levels are decreased. The brains of the diabetic mice are significantly smaller than those of their lean, control littermates, but the protein concentration is normal. The low(More)
7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (DHF), is a recently described TrkB agonist that readily crosses the blood brain barrier. We treated C57Bl/6 mice with MOG--induced EAE daily with DHF starting on the day of disease induction. Clinical severity of impairment was reduced throughout the course of disease. Pathological examination of brains and spinal cords on day 28(More)
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has neuroprotective properties but its use has been limited by poor penetration of the blood brain barrier. Treatment using bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) or retroviruses as vectors reduces the clinical and pathological severity of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have refined the BMSC based delivery(More)
Glutathione and "total" carnitine (i.e., free carnitine plus acid-soluble carnitine esters) were measured in an affected (superior frontal gyrus; SFG) and unaffected (cerebellum: CBL) region of Alzheimer disease (AD) and control brains. Average glutathione content in AD SFG (n = 13) and AD CBL (n = 7) (7.9 +/- 2.1 and 11.9 +/- 4.0 nmol/mg protein,(More)