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Principal component analysis (PCA) is a classical data analysis technique that finds linear transformations of data that retain the maximal amount of variance. We study a case where some of the data values are missing, and show that this problem has many features which are usually associated with nonlinear models, such as overfitting and bad locally optimal… (More)

We combine supervised learning with unsupervised learning in deep neural networks. The proposed model is trained to simultaneously minimize the sum of supervised and unsupervised cost functions by backpropagation, avoiding the need for layer-wise pre-training. Our work builds on top of the Ladder network proposed by Valpola [1] which we extend by combining… (More)

Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are often used as building blocks in greedy learning of deep networks. However, training this simple model can be laborious. Traditional learning algorithms often converge only with the right choice of metaparameters that specify, for example, learning rate scheduling and the scale of the initial weights. They are also… (More)

We combine supervised learning with unsupervised learning in deep neural networks. The proposed model is trained to simultaneously minimize the sum of supervised and unsupervised cost functions by backpropagation, avoiding the need for layer-wise pretraining. Our work builds on top of the Ladder network proposed by Valpola (2015) which we extend by… (More)

Boltzmann machines are often used as building blocks in greedy learning of deep networks. However, training even a simplified model, known as restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), can be extremely laborious: Traditional learning algorithms often converge only with the right choice of the learning rate scheduling and the scale of the initial weights. They are… (More)

—In this paper, we study a model that we call Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machine (GDBM) and discuss potential improvements in training the model. GDBM is designed to be applicable to continuous data and it is constructed from Gaussian-Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machine (GRBM) by adding multiple layers of binary hidden neurons. The studied… (More)

Stochastic binary hidden units in a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) network give at least three potential benefits when compared to deterministic MLP networks. (1) They allow to learn one-to-many type of mappings. (2) They can be used in struc-tured prediction problems, where modeling the internal structure of the output is important. (3) Stochasticity has… (More)

In this paper, we study a Tikhonov-type regularization for restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM). We present two alternative formulations of the Tikhonov-type regularization which encourage an RBM to learn a smoother probability distribution. Both formulations turn out to be combinations of the widely used weight-decay and sparsity regularization. We… (More)

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a well-known classical data analysis technique. There are a number of algorithms for solving the problem, some scaling better than others to problems with high di-mensionality. They also differ in their ability to handle missing values in the data. We study a case where the data are high-dimensional and a majority of… (More)

— A new interest towards restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) has risen due to their usefulness in greedy learning of deep neural networks. While contrastive divergence learning has been considered an efficient way to learn an RBM, it has a drawback due to a biased approximation in the learning gradient. We propose to use an advanced Monte Carlo method… (More)