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Despite its enormous incidence, mild traumatic brain injury is not well understood. One aspect that needs more definition is how the mechanical energy during injury affects neural circuit function. Recent developments in cellular imaging probes provide an opportunity to assess the dynamic state of neural networks with single-cell resolution. In this(More)
Alterations in the activity of neural circuits are a common consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the relationship between single-neuron properties and the aggregate network behavior is not well understood. We recently reported that the GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are key in mediating mechanical forces during TBI, and that TBI(More)
Neural stem cell (NSC) therapy represents a potentially powerful approach for gene transfer in the diseased central nervous system. However, transplanted primary, embryonic stem cell- and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NSCs generate largely undifferentiated progeny. Understanding how physiologically immature cells influence host activity is critical(More)
PURPOSE Lens fiber cell differentiation is marked by the onset of betaB1-crystallin expression and is controlled by the cooperative action of a set of transcription factors including Prox1, an atypical homeodomain protein. Previously, the authors reported that Prox1 directly interacts with the OL2 element found in the chicken betaB1-crystallin basal(More)
NMDA receptors are essential for neurotransmission and key mediators of synaptic signaling, but they can also trigger deleterious degenerative processes that lead to cell death. Growing evidence suggests that selective blockade of the heterogeneous subunits that comprise the NMDA receptor may enable better control of pharmacotherapies for treating(More)
The recent public awareness of the incidence and possible long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury only heightens the need to develop effective approaches for treating this neurological disease. In this report, we identify a new therapeutic target for traumatic brain injury by studying the role of astrocytes, rather than neurons, after neurotrauma.(More)
The lens capsule compartmentalizes the cells of the avascular lens from other ocular tissues. Small molecules required for lens cell metabolism, such as glucose, salts, and waste products, freely pass through the capsule. However, the lens capsule is selectively permeable to proteins such as growth hormones and substrate carriers which are required for(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), critical mediators of both physiologic and pathologic neurological signaling, have previously been shown to be sensitive to mechanical stretch through the loss of its native Mg(2+) block. However, the regulation of this mechanosensitivity has yet to be further explored. Furthermore, as it has become apparent that(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) alters function and behavior, which can be characterized by changes in electrophysiological function in vitro. A common cognitive deficit after mild-to-moderate TBI is disruption of persistent working memory, of which the in vitro correlate is long-lasting, neuronal network synchronization that can be induced pharmacologically(More)
BACKGROUND Retinal cell development has been extensively investigated; however, the current knowledge of dynamic morphological and molecular changes is not yet complete. RESULTS This study was aimed at revealing the dynamic morphological and molecular changes in retinal cell development during the embryonic stages using a new method of targeted retinal(More)