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Pikas originated in Asia and are small lagomorphs native to cold climates. The plateau pika, Ochotona curzoniae is a keystone species on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and an ideal animal model for hypoxic adaptation studies. Altered mitochondrial function, especially cytochrome c oxidase activity, is an important factor in modulation of energy generation and(More)
Mitochondria have a major role in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, which is dependent on the expression of critical genes encoded by mitochondrial (mt)DNA. Mutations in mtDNA can cause fatal or severely debilitating disorders with limited treatment options. Clinical manifestations vary based on mutation type and heteroplasmy (that is, the(More)
INTRODUCTION Lenz microphthalmia syndrome (LMS) is a genetically heterogeneous X-linked disorder characterised by microphthalmia/anophthalmia, skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary malformations, and anomalies of the digits, ears, and teeth. Intellectual disability and seizure disorders are seen in about 60% of affected males. To date, no gene has been(More)
Holt-Oram syndrome is an autosomal-dominant condition characterized by congenital cardiac and forelimb anomalies. It is caused by mutations of the TBX5 gene, a member of the T-box family that encodes a transcription factor. Molecular studies have demonstrated that mutations predicted to create null alleles cause substantial abnormalities in both the limbs(More)
We present clinical and developmental data on a girl with a de novo terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4, del(4)(q33). The patient was evaluated at birth and followed up until 5 years of age. She showed facial and digital dysmorphism, a complex congenital heart defect, a large occipital encephalocele, and postnatal growth deficiency. Her(More)
OBJECTIVE Barth syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by dilated cardiomyopathy, neutropenia, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, abnormal mitochondria, variably expressed skeletal myopathy, and growth delay. The disorder is caused by mutations in the tafazzin (TAZ/G4.5) gene located on Xq28. We report a novel exonic splicing mutation in the TAZ(More)
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common mitochondrial disorder. Nuclear modifier genes are proposed to modify the phenotypic expression of LHON-associated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. By using an exome sequencing approach, we identified a LHON susceptibility allele (c.572G>T, p.191Gly>Val) in YARS2 gene encoding mitochondrial(More)
Maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt)DNA mutations can cause fatal or severely debilitating syndromes in children, with disease severity dependent on the specific gene mutation and the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNA (heteroplasmy) in each cell and tissue. Pathogenic mtDNA mutations are relatively common, with an estimated 778 affected children born(More)
Mutations in optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), a nuclear gene encoding a mitochondrial protein, is the most common cause for autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA). The condition is characterized by gradual loss of vision, color vision defects, and temporal optic pallor. To understand the molecular mechanism by which OPA1 mutations cause optic atrophy and to(More)
The distinction between mild pathogenic mtDNA mutations and population polymorphisms can be ambiguous because both are homoplasmic, alter conserved functions, and correlate with disease. One possible explanation for this ambiguity is that the same variant may have different consequences in different contexts. The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1)(More)