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The human transcription factor pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is a key regulator of enzyme expression, especially cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Due to the prominence of CYP3A4 in the elimination of many drugs, the development of high throughput in vitro models to predict the effect of drugs on CYP3A4 expression have increased. To better interpret and predict(More)
The human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) regulates the expression of critical drug metabolism enzymes. One of such enzymes, cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), plays critical roles in drug metabolism in hepatocytes that are either quiescent or passing through the cell cycle. It has been well established that the expression of P450, such as CYP3A4, is markedly reduced(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays crucial roles in multiple physiological processes. However, the signaling mechanisms responsible are not well defined; it is most likely that multiple functions of PXR are modulated by its phosphorylation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether mutation at a highly conserved Thr(57) affects human PXR (hPXR) function.(More)
Drug resistance involves multiple mechanisms. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the leading cause of treatment failure in cancer therapy. Elevated levels of MDR proteins [members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family] increase cellular efflux and decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents. As a salvage approach to overcome drug(More)
BACKGROUND The expression of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is regulated by the pregnane x receptor (PXR), which is modulated by numerous signaling pathways, including the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) pathway. Flavonoids, commonly consumed by humans as dietary constituents, have been shown to modulate various signaling pathways(More)
INTRODUCTION The xenobiotic detoxification system, which protects the human body from external chemicals, comprises drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters whose expressions are regulated by pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). The progress made in a large number of recent studies calls for a timely review to(More)
Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR(More)
Active metabolism regulates oocyte cell death via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated phosphorylation of caspase-2, but the link between metabolic activity and CaMKII is poorly understood. Here we identify coenzyme A (CoA) as the key metabolic signal that inhibits Xenopus laevis oocyte apoptosis by directly activating CaMKII. We(More)
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are morphogens that play a major role in regulating development and homeostasis. Although BMPs are used for the treatment of bone and kidney disorders, their clinical use is limited due to the supra-physiological doses required for therapeutic efficacy causing severe side effects. Because recombinant BMPs are expensive to(More)
The hPXR (human pregnane X receptor), a major chemical toxin sensor, is a ligand-induced transcription factor activated by various xenobiotics and toxins, resulting in the transcriptional up-regulation of detoxifying enzymes. To date, little is known about the upstream regulation of hPXR. Using MS analysis and a kinome-wide siRNA screen, we report that the(More)