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Better characterization of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) in patients with primary infection has important implications for the development of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine because vaccine strategies should target viral isolates with the properties of transmitted viruses. In five HIV-1 seroconverters, the viral phenotype(More)
Weibo and other popular Chinese microblogging sites are well known for exercising internal censorship, to comply with Chinese government requirements. This research seeks to quantify the mechanisms of this censorship: how fast and how comprehensively posts are deleted. Our analysis considered 2.38 million posts gathered over roughly two months in 2012, with(More)
Homeobox genes encode transcription factors which function in body axis patterning in the developing embryo. Recent evidence suggests that the maintenance of specific HOX expression patterns is necessary for regulating the homeostasis of adult tissues as well. In this study, HOXB7 transformed human mammary epithelial cells, MCF10A, to grow in minimally(More)
Increased mammary epithelial expression of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene is associated with the acquisition of pathological proliferation. We report here that autocrine hGH production by human mammary carcinoma cells increased the expression and transcriptional activity of the homeobox domain containing protein HOXA1. Forced expression of HOXA1 in(More)
Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants live in such an environment. Recognizing activities of not(More)
A tumor suppressor function has been attributed to RUNX3, a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors. Here, we examined alterations in the expression of three members, RUNX1, RUNX2, and RUNX3, and their interacting partner, CBF-beta, in breast cancer. Among them, RUNX3 was consistently underexpressed in breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors.(More)
We have demonstrated here that growth hormone (GH) stimulates the formation of the active GTP-bound form of both RalA and RalB in NIH-3T3 cells. Full activation of RalA and RalB by GH required the combined activity of c-Src and JAK2, both kinases activated by GH independent of the other. Activation of RalA and RalB by growth hormone did not require the(More)
To explore the mechanism of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we compared HIV-1 gp120 sequences in longitudinal samples from five acute seroconvertors with those from their corresponding sexual partners (transmitters). We used a quantitative homoduplex tracking assay to compare the overall genetic composition of HIV-1(More)
Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) has emerged as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The SaeRS two-component signal transduction system (TCS) influences virulence and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. The deletion of saeR in S. epidermidis results in impaired anaerobic growth and decreased nitrate utilization. However, the(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is increasingly recognized as a mechanism whereby cells in primary noninvasive tumors acquire properties essential for migration and invasion. Microarray analyses of microdissected epithelial cells from bone metastasis revealed a HOXB7 overexpression that was 3-fold higher than in primary breast carcinomas and 18-fold(More)