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Smac mimetics induce apoptosis synergistically with TNF-alpha by triggering the formation of a caspase-8-activating complex containing receptor interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1). Caspase inhibitors block this form of apoptosis in many types of cells. However, in several other cell lines, caspase inhibitors switch the apoptotic response to necrosis. A(More)
Intracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (iNampt) is an essential enzyme in the NAD biosynthetic pathway. An extracellular form of this protein (eNampt) has been reported to act as a cytokine named PBEF or an insulin-mimetic hormone named visfatin, but its physiological relevance remains controversial. Here we show that eNampt does not exert(More)
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to play crucial roles in mammalian development, but their precise functions are only partially understood. To investigate epigenetic regulation of embryonic development, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells into mesendoderm, neural progenitor cells, trophoblast-like cells, and mesenchymal stem cells and(More)
Drosophila visual transduction is the fastest known G-protein-coupled signaling cascade and has therefore served as a genetically tractable animal model for characterizing rapid responses to sensory stimulation. Mutations in over 30 genes have been identified, which affect activation, adaptation, or termination of the photoresponse. Based on analyses of(More)
Bamboo represents the only major lineage of grasses that is native to forests and is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the world. However, no species in the Bambusoideae subfamily has been sequenced. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of moso bamboo (P. heterocycla var. pubescens). The 2.05-Gb assembly covers 95% of(More)
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes form a diverse, immunogenetic system. Group A and B KIR haplotypes have distinctive centromeric (Cen) and telomeric (Tel) gene-content motifs. Aiming to develop a donor selection strategy to improve transplant outcome, we compared the contribution of these motifs to the clinical benefit conferred by B(More)
BACKGROUND The prognosis for adults with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia is poor. We sought to determine whether inotuzumab ozogamicin, an anti-CD22 antibody conjugated to calicheamicin, results in better outcomes in patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia than does standard therapy. METHODS In this phase 3 trial, we(More)
BACKGROUND Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) embedded in circulating exosomes may serves as prognostic biomarkers in cancer. OBJECTIVE To identify and evaluate plasma exosomal miRNAs for prognosis in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS RNA sequencing was performed to identify candidate exosomal miRNAs associated(More)
Development of the vertebrate gut is controlled by paracrine crosstalk between the endodermal epithelium and the associated splanchnic mesoderm. In the adult, the same types of signals control epithelial proliferation and survival, which account for the importance of the stroma in colon carcinoma progression. Here, we show that targeting murine Foxf1 and(More)
Mechanistic associations between obesity and colorectal cancer remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether adipokines are risk factors for colorectal cancer and whether they may mediate its association with obesity. In a case-cohort study nested within the Women's Health Initiative cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 457(More)